Built from a historic sugar plantation, this profoundly serene room resort sits on acres of a protected national park dotted with seven remote beaches. Book Caneel Bay Resort, Caneel Bay on TripAdvisor: See traveler reviews, candid photos, and great deals for Caneel Bay Resort, ranked #1 of 1 hotel. Caneel Bay Resort, St John US Virgin Islands Caneel Bay Beach Resort map Caneel Bay beach is part of the Caneel Bay Resort located within the Virgin.
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Five star resort in one of the most beautiful settings, right in the middle of Virgin Islands National Park. Low key and unplugged, a chance to step away from the bwy and bustle of daily life. Add to that some of the most beautiful beaches My family has traveled to many islands in the Carribean, but St.

CANEEL BAY RESORT – Updated Prices & Reviews (U.S. Virgin Islands) – TripAdvisor

John has been by far the most impressive. Caneel Bay had s nice location with a lot of options for snorkeling. Have been to cnaeel resort a couple of times. I love daneel its nested in the middle of nature and the rooms are almost hidden in the trees. I love the beach and all the activities the hotel offers. Over the years, however, i feel I’ve stayed at Caneel annually reskrt over 10 years, and I hate to see the damage inflicted by hurricanes Irma and Maria.

What was once and absolutely beautiful, quiet and laid back resort is now destroyed. We always stayed on Scott Beach and enjoyed walking This resort was nothing short of spectacular with its 5 beaches and access to kap others all within walking distance and beautiful landscape with donkeys and deer freely roaming around. It looked like a scene out of Jurassic Park minus the dinosaurs!

Flights Vacation Rentals Restaurants Things to do. John Bed and Breakfast St. John Vacation Rentals St. John Vacation Packages Flights to St.

John Restaurants Things to Do in St. John Travel Forum St. John Travel Guide All St. All of your saved places can be found here in My Trips.

Log in to get trip updates and message other travelers. Log in Join Recently viewed Bookings Inbox. See all 1 hotels in Caneel Bay. Caneel ResrotSt. John Caneel BaySt. Lowest prices for your stay. Guests 1 room2 adults0 children Guests 1 2.

We search up to sites for the lowest prices. View all photos 0 0. Caneel Bay St. John See on map. Rooms Check In Check Out. Getting you more information on this room More.

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Canfel, this partner no longer has rooms available on TripAdvisor. Please visit one of our 0 partner sites to see rooms from. We’re sorry, there are no rooms available on TripAdvisor. Please change your datesor view all Caneel Bay hotels with availability. Show reviews that mention. All reviews scott beach sushi sugar mill sea turtles natural beauty beach service beach grill turn down service national park st john hawks nest tropical fish tennis courts garden view private ferry honeymoon beach great acneel.

Reviewed August 13, Wonderful one of a kind resort! Reviewed May 27, via mobile Our favorite vacation. Reviewed May 7, Wonderful Place! Reviewed April 19, Hope it reopens. Reviewed April 14, Wonderful Resort!

Previous Next 1 2 3 4 5 6 … Unfortunately, Caneel Caneep Resort was also devastated and while we are happy to report all our employees survived the storm, Caneel Bay Resort did not. Sadly, it is impossible to open through the end of Hotel class Star ratings indicate the general caneek of features and amenities to expect.

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Caneel Bay Resort

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Non-Smoking Rooms, Family Rooms. Caneel Bay, A Rosewood Resort. All photos Nearby Hotels See all 6 nearby hotels. Nearby Restaurants See all nearby restaurants.

Nearby Attractions See all nearby attractions. Morningstar Sailing and Power Charters.

See all 6 nearby hotels See all nearby restaurants See all nearby attractions. See all 77 questions. Does anyone have any information as to whether Caneel Bay suffered damage due to Hurricane Irma? We daneel scheduled to stay there in December, and the website doesn’t currently have information. Response from Angela P Reviewed this property.

Caneel Bay

I have not heard anything but have seen aerial photos and it looks bad. Also, I am worried about the reefs just off the reesort – if they were damaged or destroyed. Those reefs are so fragile – between hurricanes and Those reefs are so fragile – between hurricanes and thoughtless snorkelers slathering on sunblock resotr is not reef safe and not biodegradable that leeches by the gallons into the fragile ecosystem, I am always worrying about Caneel, which is truly one of my favorite places on the planet.

Note to everyone – if you are going swimming in that water and need to use sunblock, use only reef safe and long-sleeve swim shirts so you don’t have to put so much on. Does anyone know the last time Caneel underwent renovations? Absolutely loved the place 10 years ago, but wonder if it’s becoming a bit tired?

Response from JPax Reviewed this property. Premium beach front recently received a beautiful renovation and more rooms will follow in the near future. Is zika virus still active in the USVI? There was a poster about it when we arrived at the airport in November and I’m wondering before booking another trip.

Response from Taylor P. TripAdvisor LLC is not responsible for content on external web sites. Taxes, fees not included for deals content. About Us Help Center.


28 set. Transcript of ligação química no metais e outros sólidos. Beatriz Quintos Carolina Morais Maria Catarino Rafaela Pinela Sandra Malveiro Nº2. View presentations and documents with title a.2 on SlideShare, the world’s largest community for sharing presentations. Figura 1 Visualização das ligações químicas e também das ligações de hidrogênio no tetrâmero da 8-hidroxiquinolina utilizando a técnica de microscopia de.
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Hydrogen bond or van der Waals interaction?

It is through the application of an electronic partition approach called Symmetry-Adapted Perturbation Theory SAPT that the nature of hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions can be unveiled according to the contribution of electrostatic, charge transfer, exchange repulsion, polarization, and dispersion terms. Among these, electrostatic partition governs the formation of the hydrogen bonds, whose energies are arguably high.

However, the weakness of the interaction strength is caused by dispersion forces, whose contribution decisively lead to the stabilization of complexes formed via van der Waals interactions. Conforme claramente argumentado por Hobza et al.

A, Nova31 A99 A, ; Grabowski, S. Nova33 Nova34 B, Nova18 Has Everything Been Tried? Nova20 ligacoa, Sci2 W; Atoms in Molecules.

B, ; Grabowski, S. A, ; Oliveira, B.

All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License. Services on Demand Journal.

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Keywords aplastic anemia, chloramphenicol, mice, shrimps. Pengaruh residu khloramfenikol dalam udang windu terhadap kejadian anemia aplastik pada. Sari Pediatri, Vol. 7, No. 1, Juni Judul: Masalah pada Tata Laksana Anemia Aplastik. Background: Aplastic anemia is a well-recognized form of marrow failure. The incidence of aplastic anemia is subjected to wide variation.
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Most acquired aplastic anemia AA is the result of immune-mediated destruction of hematopoietic stem cells causing pancytopenia and an empty bone marrow, which can be successfully treated with either immunosuppressive therapy IST or hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation HSCT. In AA, oligoclonally expanded cytotoxic T-cells induce apoptosis of hematopoietic progenitors. Regulatory T-cells are significantly reduced in patients’ peripheral blood and in an AA murine model, infusion of regulatory T-cells ameliorates disease progression.

In a minority of cases, loss-of-function mutations in telomerase complex genes may underlie disease development. Long term survival, once strongly linked to response to immunosuppressive therapy, can anmeia be achieved even among non-responders due to significant advances in supportive care and better salvage treatments.

Evidence has accumulated in the recent years further corroborating an immune-mediated process underlying AA pathogenesis. HSCT from a matched sibling donor is preferred for children and young adults with severe AA, and IST is employed when HSCT is not feasible due to age, lack of ansmia histocompatible sibling, co-morbidities, or by patient choice. In anrmia severe form, aplastic anemia AA is a life-threatening bone marrow failure disorder which, if untreated, is associated with very high mortality.

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation HSCT offers an opportunity for cure, but most patients are not suitable candidates for this procedure due to advanced age, comorbidities, or lack of a histocompatible donor. For these patients, comparable long term survival is attainable with anwmia treatment IST with anti-thymocyte globulin ATG and cyclosporine CsA. Although several etiopathogenic triggers have been proposed in AA, the aplastlk of cases are idiopathic, with a small percentage of cases occurring after an episode of seronegative hepatitis.

Acquired AA is a rare disease; almost half of cases occur during the first three decades of life. The incidence in Western countries is two cases per million per year and about fold higher in Asia [ 1 — 3 ].

Benzene and pesticides, while epidemiologically associated, account for a small etiologic fraction. In rural Thailand, associated exposures to non-bottled water, as well as to certain animals, to animal fertilizer, and also to pesticides suggest an infectious etiology [ 2 ]. The rarity of acquired AA most probably is accounted for by a combination of infrequent exposure events, a diversity of host genetic predisposing factors, and individual differences in the immune response.

During the last jrunal, AA was attributed to an idiosyncratic reaction to drug or chemical exposure. The association of medical drug use to AA is of great importance, as it is devastating to patients and physicians and presents serious legal consequences and problems in pharmaceutical drug development [ 4 ]. However, the study of idiosyncratic drug reactions, by definition extremely rare, is difficult and the only clear predisposition to abnormal drug metabolism underlying susceptibility is one study of a single individual exposed to carbamazepine published over 20 years ago [ 5 ].

Overrepresentation of drug metabolizing glutathione-S-transferase gene deletions have been observed in some series [ 67 ] but no reasonable mechanism has been developed for chloramphenicol.


Pregnancy and eosinophilic fasciitis are linked to AA. Five to ten percent of cases of AA follow an episode of seronegative hepatitis [ 8 ], but despite intensive efforts, an infectious agent has not been identified. In most cases, AA behaves as an immune-mediated disease. An immune response dominated by oligoclonal expanded cytotoxic T-cells targets hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, inducing their death via apoptosis and hematopoietic failure.

Recovery of autologous hematopoiesis in patients who failed to engraft after stem cell transplant and responsiveness to immunosuppressive therapies are the major clinical evidences supporting an immune pathophysiology underlying acquired AA. Removal of lymphocytes from aplastic bone marrows improves colony numbers in tissue culture, and their addition to normal marrow inhibited hematopoiesis in vitro [ 9 ]. Regulatory T cells, which control and suppress auto-reactive T cells, are decreased at presentation in almost all patients with AA [ 13 ].

In a mouse model of immune-mediated marrow failure, addition of T regulatory cells abrogated pancytopenia induced by the infusion of lymph node cells [ 14 ].

Why T-cells are activated in AA is unclear. HLA-DR2 is over-represented among patients, suggesting a role for antigen recognition, and its presence is predictive of a better response to cyclosporine [ 1516 ].

These alterations in nucleotide sequence and in gene regulation suggest a genetic basis for aberrant T cell activation in bone marrow failure. Immune attack leads to marrow failure.

The reduced number and function of the marrow is secondary to cell destruction, and apoptosis is prevalent among the few remaining elements [ 20 — 22 ]. A minority of AA cases may share pathophysiologic basis with inherited marrow failure syndromes. One peculiar feature of white blood cells in AA is short telomeres, observed in approximately a third of cases [ 2425 ].

Although initially blamed on excessive stem cell turnover, telomere shortening in some cases of acquired AA and in dyskeratosis congenita, a constitutional marrow failure syndrome is due to mutations in components of the telomerase complex, causing low telomerase activity, progressive telomere erosion, and a deficient proliferative capacity of hematopoietic stem cells [ 26 — 29 ].

The mechanisms linking immune-mediated and pre-malignant or malignant pathophysiologies are not well elucidated in marrow failure or in other human autoimmune diseases that predispose to cancer. The global absence of large number of cell surface proteins in PNH has been hypothesized to allow escape and survival of a pre-existing mutant clone.

Aneuploidy develops in a minority of patients treated with immunosuppression over time, usually monosomy 7 and trisomy 8[ 32 ]. AA patients who develop trisomy 8 usually respond to IST [ 33 ]. T-cell oligoclones appear to recognize the aneuploid cells and specifically WT1 as an antigen, but target cells are not killed due to their expression of anti-apoptotic genes [ 34 ].

Monosomy 7 is the most frequent cytogenetic abnormality in evolving AA; it confers a poor prognosis: Monosomy 7 has been linked to exogenous use of G-CSF in AA [ 3637 ] and laboratory studies suggest that aneuploid clones expand in an abnormal cytokine milieu rich in G-CSF due to the presence of a short G-CSF receptor isoform, which signals proliferation but not differentiation [ 38 ].

The presence of even small monosomy 7 clones in the bone marrow, as detected by FISH but not by routine cytogeneticsis a poor prognostic indicator for response to IST [ 39 ]. While it is generally believed that h-ATG administration leads to depletion of immune competent cells, its exact mechanism of action remains unclear [ 40 ]. H-ATG preparations contain a variety of antibodies recognizing human T-cell epitopes, many directed against activated T-cells or activation antigens [ 4142 ].

In contrast to ATG, CsA has a more selective inhibitory effect on T lymphocytes, suppressing early cellular response to antigenic and regulatory stimuli. The benefits and limitations of this regimen as initial therapy have been quantitated in systematic studies in the US, Japan and Europe: The majority of responses to IST are not complete, notwithstanding, hematologic response almost always equates to cessation of transfusion, and multiple studies have shown a strong correlation between hematologic response and long term survival [ 4549 ].

Both refractory and relapsed patients are frequently treated with further courses of ATG. R-ATG is similar to h-ATG except that gamma immune globulin is obtained by immunization of rabbits with human thymocytes. Clinically, r-ATG appears to be more immunosuppressive as a more prolonged lymphopenia is observed with this agent compared to h-ATG [ 52 ]. This enhanced lymphocytotoxicity of r-ATG may be explained by higher affinity IgG subtype to human lymphocytes, less batch-to-batch variability, longer half-life, and more efficient lymphocyte depletion [ 53 ].

For relapsed patients, re-introduction of CsA commonly result in improvement in blood counts, however, CsA-dependence is frequent and the dose of CsA usually is tapered slowly with hematologic monitoring [ 45 ]. However, we have noted a striking improvement in survival among non-responders to initial h-ATG treated at our institution in recent years [ 59 ].

Retrospective analysis has shown that the decrease in deaths in refractory patients is most likely due to more successful salvage therapies repeat IST and HSCT as well as better supportive care, mainly the introduction of better antifungal drugs.

Proposed criteria to date have been complex or relied on non-standardized tests.

Medical Journal of Lampung University

A recent reported Japanese randomized study suggested that the addition of G-CSF might reduce the incidence of relapse [ 65 ], but this results was not observed jutnal other studies of similar design [ 66 ]. In moderate AA, the clinical course is variable: Very few clinical trials have specifically addressed hurnal disease.

Immunosuppression can reverse moderate pancytopenia and alleviate transfusion requirements; ATG and cyclosporine are more effective in combination [ 68 ]. Daclizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody to the interleukin-2 receptor, improved blood counts and relieved transfusion requirements in 6 of 16 evaluable patients; the outpatient regimen had little toxicity [ 69 ]. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation aplastk a histocompatible matched sibling is curative therapy in the majority of SAA patients who undergo this procedure.

Chronic GVHD has been a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients who survived more than 2 years kurnal graft, with the necessity of long term immunosuppressive therapy common [ 72 ]. Graft rejection, a historic problem in the application of transplant to SAA is now infrequent, likely a benefit of less immunogenic blood products leukocyte-depleted erythrocytes, for example from fewer donors platelets collected by cytoapheresis [ 7374 ].

Also, better radiation-free conditioning regimens have improved the tolerability of HSCT and allowed for engraftment in heavily transfused and in some cases jurnall patients who were refractory to IST [ 7576 ].

In a retrospective analysis, the use of PB progenitor cell graft aplastij been correlated to a worse outcome and more chronic GVHD in younger patients less than 20 compared to those who receive a bone marrow graft in HLA-matched sibling donor transplants [ 78 ]. This difference was not observed in older patients.

As the outcome in aplastic patients who have failed a single round of ATG has been poor, alternative sources of hematopoietic stem cells have been sought, usually from now very large donor registries. Older patients with poor performance status have the worst outcome and better results are obtained in children than for adults. Progress in donor selection through high-resolution HLA typing technology has likely contributed to decreased graft rejection and better survival [ 82 ] and recently reported outcomes for MUD rival those for an HLA-matched sibling transplant in children and young adults [ 8384 ].

The optimal conditioning regimen for a MUD HSCT remains uncertain; in contrast to allogeneic sibling transplants, transplants from unrelated donors still require low dose irradiation cGy to ensure engraftment, with attendant long-term complications [ 8586 ].

In general, prospective trials have enrolled fewer patients but have better results, albeit with short periods of post-transplant observation [ 71 ]. Those who underwent a MUD HSCT had a higher failure free survival defined as survival with response compared to those who underwent a second course of IST, although no difference in overall survival was observed between the 2 groups [ 87 ]. In recent years, further evidence has accumulated to strengthen the hypothesis that bone marrow failure in AA results from immunologic destruction of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

Current research is aimed at investigating the mechanisms that lead to T cell activation and, whether it is antigen driven or a result of immunological disarray. The clinical implication of telomere shortening in AA is being investigated for prognostic significance. Most patients with AA are now expected to survive regardless of the treatment modality employed.

National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Author manuscript; available in PMC Aug 2. YoungPhillip Scheinbergand Rodrigo T. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. The publisher’s final edited version of this article is available at Curr Opin Hematol. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract Purpose of review Most acquired aplastic anemia AA is the result of immune-mediated destruction of hematopoietic stem cells causing pancytopenia and an empty bone marrow, which can be successfully treated with either immunosuppressive therapy IST or hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation HSCT.

Recent findings In AA, oligoclonally expanded cytotoxic T-cells induce apoptosis of hematopoietic progenitors. Summary Evidence has accumulated in the recent years further corroborating an immune-mediated process underlying AA pathogenesis.

Introduction In its severe form, aplastic anemia AA is a life-threatening bone marrow failure disorder which, if untreated, is associated with very high mortality. Epidemiology and Etiology Acquired AA is a rare disease; almost half of cases occur during the first three decades of life.

Pathophysiology In most cases, AA behaves as an immune-mediated disease. T-cell-mediated destruction of the bone marrow Recovery of autologous hematopoiesis in patients who failed to engraft after stem cell transplant and responsiveness to immunosuppressive therapies are the major clinical evidences supporting an immune pathophysiology underlying acquired AA.

Hematopoiesis Immune attack leads to marrow failure. MDS Aneuploidy develops in a minority of patients treated with immunosuppression over time, usually monosomy 7 and trisomy 8[ 32 ].

Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation HLA-matched sibling donor transplant Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from a histocompatible matched sibling is curative therapy in the majority of SAA patients who undergo this procedure. Conclusion In recent years, further evidence has accumulated to strengthen the hypothesis that bone marrow failure in AA results from immunologic destruction of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

Incidence of aplastic anemia and agranulocytosis in Latin America: Sao Paulo Medical Journal. Aplastic Anemia, Acquired and Inherited. Increased risk for aplastic anemia and myelodysplastic syndrome in individuals lacking GSTT1 gene.


Matlab, ses boîtes à outils et Simulink sont des produits développés par la .. d’ un outil de programmation de haut niveau et sans apprendre le Fortran ou le C. Apprendre et maîtriser MATLAB / Mohand Mokhtari et Abdelhalim Mesbah ; préface de G. Roucairol. PPN: Main Author: Mokhtari, Mohand Coauthor. MATLAB and et SIMULINK 2 and 3 pour etudiants et ingenieurs. Springer , ISBN Apprendre et maitriser MATLAB. Springer
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This book, a translation of an original French text, is written in two parts: Each application is treated through various techniques including t This book, a translation of an original French text, is written in two parts: Each application is treated through various techniques including the classical methods of automation and of deterministic and random digital processing using fuzzy logic and neural networks. The preceding mathematical study of the physical processes goes from finding the equations to editing the analogical model.

Paperbackpages. Published June 22nd by Springer first published January 15th To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up.

Mohand Mokhtari (Author of Engineering Applications of MATLAB and Simulink 3)

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Engineering, Safwat Zaky Professor of Electrical and Computer Engin., Naraig Manjikian The sixth edition of this book covers the key topics in computer organization and by Carl Hamacher Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering . Zvonko Vranesic (Toronto, Canada) Professor of Computer Engineering at. Computer Organization (Fifth Edition). Carl Hamacher,Safwat Zaky,Zvonko Vranesic. Published by Tata McGraw-Hill Education Pvt. Ltd, ISBN Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Jun 30, , Mile K. Stojcev and others published Carl Hamacher, Zvonko Vranesic, Safwat Zaky, Computer Organization.
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Computer Organization provides a practical overview to the subject of computer organization, which delves into the internal structure of computers.

Computer Organization is an introductory text on computer organization that provides a practical overview of the subject. It does so by discussing the design of some of the leading computers available in the market today. The book is useful for a first-level course on the subject.

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It comes with as many as five appendices, which cover organiation instruction sets of some of the computers discussed and other useful references. He is also a well-known chess player. Vranesic was born in in Zagreb. He emigrated to Canada when hamachef was young and studied Electrical Engineering at the University of Toronto. He went on to teach the subject at the university. He represented Canada in international chess tournaments and holds the titles of International Master of Chess and International Master of Correspondence Chess.

He began teaching at the University of Toronto in and went on to hold the chair of Edward S.

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Summary Of The Book Computer Organization is an introductory text on computer organization that provides a practical overview of the subject. Data Structures and Algorithms sagwat Java 3rd Edition.

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Due to the recent controversy over the World Press Photo winning image, I have written a blog post for the picture folk over at the Daily Beast, and have been interviewed for Photogeaphy Photo online by Stan Horaczek. In both cases ideas are put forth on how to better contextualize the photograph and potentially gain more credibility phofography the reader.

See the link here. Now the Annenberg Center in California is trying to figure out other metrics that might be more helpful. While I have been absent from writing this blog over the past year, I have instead written a new book to be released next month by Aperture: Photojournalism, Documentary, and the Citizen.

After Photography

The first chapter of the book has just been put online courtesy of the Magnum Foundation. Bending the Frame is about how to think about creating media in the current political and social environment so as photograpyy impact society in positive ways.

The scholarship funds cover the 6-week program at the Tisch Cred of the Arts at NYU, housing, travel, and living expenses, as well as additional cultural activities in New York with the opportunity to meet editors, publishers, and visit some of the photographu prestigious photography museums and galleries.

The four scholarships are open to applicants living and working in, and native to any of the following regions: The scholarship is aimed at intermediate and advanced international students, including experienced professionals. The six-week phottography is comprised of four courses and is designed to enable students to explore strategies for creating effective documentary projects in pursuit of human rights.

Students will propose multimedia or traditional presentation strategies for their photo essays, which they will develop through two studio courses.

The final component is a discussion and writing course correlating with a public guest lecture series featuring speakers from the fields of photojournalism, law, and media. Scholarship fellows will remain in New York for an additional week to meet with local editors, publishers, and other experts in the field and explore museums, galleries, photograpgy other cultural resources.

A description of a human rights related project you would like to pursue words max- pdf format. A portfolio of 20 photographs by the student Labeled: First Name, Last Name, etc please note: To start the application process from November 29th – December 19th, go to: Winners will be named at the beginning of January.

For more information about the Magnum Foundation, please visit www. To honor the life and work of the late Tim Hetherington, Human Rights Watch and Affter Press Photo have established an annual visual journalism award focusing on human rights, Human Rights Watch said today …. We hope this grant will help more photographers think of their work in those terms. The annual grant of 20, euro seeks to reward a career history of documenting critical human rights stories and an ability to draw together diverse elements into a compelling multimedia feature.

Human Rights Watch and World Press Photo will join a ritcin panel of judges to select the recipient of the first annual Tim Hetherington Grant in November, with the aim of allowing the winner to complete an existing project on a human rights theme.

The deadline for applications is October 15, Please come to What Matters Now? The project begins now online, and next week ritcgin the Aperture Gallery in New York. Carpetright Building, High Road, Tottenham.

Before the riots Google Streetview: The BBC is utilizing Google Streetviews to give us an instant before-and-after history, demonstrating the physical damage caused by the current London riots on the cityscape. The photograph is no longer seen alone, which makes the results of the rioting all the more visible, sudden, and devastating.

He quotes correspondence between Tim and Stephen Mayes: The software runs it, and the software is young men. But I get it. From Huffington Post in the United Kingdomthe first signs of resistance to image manipulation in mass media. It may be several decades late, but at least one member of Parliament seems to care:.

Promotions for foundations by Lancome and Maybelline, starring Julia Roberts and supermodel Christy Turlington, were deemed misleading by the watchdog due to extensive airbrushing. The Liberal Democrat MP said it was important for adverts to reflect reality to help the self-esteem of everyday women.

After Photography – Fred Ritchin – Google Books

After Photography What is next? Filed in Uncategorized Comments 0. Bending the Frame Sunday, April 21, Red Rain in Tokyo Tuesday, January 17, Applicants must be fluent in the English language. A Statement of Purpose words max- pdf format 2. A description of a human rights related project you would like to pursue words max- pdf format 3. After, and Before Monday, August 8, On War Monday, August 8, Ads are Banned Thursday, August 4, It may be several decades late, but at least one member of Parliament seems to care: Given the emergence of the digital, few appear to be exploring whether more effective and expansive media strategies can now emerge.

This site is a forum on possibility, launched in conjunction with the publication of Fred Ritchin’s book After Photography in December of


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Phylogenetic analysis of about strains of SalmonellaShigellaand Escherichia coli was carried out using the nucleotide sequence of the gene for DNA gyrase B gyrBwhich was determined by directly sequencing PCR fragments. The results establish a new phylogenetic tree for the classification of Salmonella salmonella, Shigellaand Escherichia coli in which Salmonella forms a cluster separate from but closely related to Shigella and E.

In aalmonella with 16S rRNA analysis, the gyrB sequences indicated a greater evolutionary divergence for the bacteria. Thus, in screening sapmonella the presence of bacteria, the gyrB gene might be a useful tool for differentiating between closely related species of bacteria such as Shigella spp.

At present, 16S rRNA sequence analysis is an accurate and salmonepla method for identifying most unknown bacteria to the genus level because the highly conserved 16S rRNA region is easy to amplify; however, analysis of the more variable gyrB sequence region can identify unknown bacteria to the species level. In summary, we have shown that gyrB sequence analysis is a useful alternative to 16S rRNA analysis for constructing the phylogenetic relationships of bacteria, in particular for the classification of closely related bacterial species.

Shigella and Salmonella are pathogens that cause gastroenteropathy in humans Alimentary typhhi are mostly caused by Salmonellawhich has a broad distribution throughout the natural world and a widespread occurrence in animals, especially in poultry and swine Brenner considered Shigella and E.

Makalah Salmonella Typhi

In general, the chromosomes of SalmonellaShigellaand E. There are over 2, Salmonella serotypes, based on antigenic differences associated with gastroenteritis and enteric typhoid fever in humans.

The majority of these serotypes belong to a single Salmonella species, Salmonella enterica For Shigellathere are four species Shigella dysenteriaeShigella flexneriShigella boydiiand Shigella sonnei 3. Any of the four Shigella species can cause bacillary dysentery. Therefore, it would be useful to classify these types of bacteria to aid the treatment of bacterial infections.

In particular, 16S rRNA sequences have been widely used to construct bacterial phylogenetic relationships 634 or to detect pathogenic bacteria However, the classification of closely related species of bacteria, for example, Shigella spp.

As an alternative to 16S rRNA analysis, Yamamoto and Harayama 363738 designed a set of PCR primers that allowed both the amplification of the gyrB gene, which encodes the subunit B protein of DNA gyrase topoisomerase type IIfrom a large variety of bacteria and the rapid nucleotide sequencing of the amplified gyrB fragments. They then used the gyrB gene in the taxonomic classification of Pseudomonas putida and Acetinobacter strains. The sequences of gyrB genes imply that the rate of molecular evolution is higher than that determined by 16S rRNA sequences 93637 We thought that detailed analysis of bacterial phylogenetic relationships might be possible through the gyrB region, as this genetic region can classify bacteria that cannot be classified by their 16S rRNA regions.

In particular, the gyrB gene region might be useful to analyze the phylogenetic relationship among ShigellaSalmonellaand E. Using PCR, we amplified the gyrB regions about 1.

This region was sequenced directly, and the results were used to compile phylogenetic relationships for the bacterial strains. In this study, we present a new phylogenetic analysis of ShigellaSalmonellaand E. The strains used in this study originated from reference collections American Type Culture Collection and Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH or were clinical isolates.

Two hundred strains were cultured from stool specimens from patients with diarrhea collected from different regions in Japan during the period between April and May The serogroups of these strains were identified by using an agglutination kit Denka Seiken Co. The bacterial strains used in this study were obtained from clinical specimens and were cultured by standard methods. To isolate chromosomal DNA, one or two freshly grown colonies of bacteria were scraped into a 1.

The phylogenetic data described below were obtained by alignment and phylogenetic analysis of the bacterial sequences. The nucleotide sequence data reported in this paper appear in the GenBank and DDBJ nucleotide sequence databases with the following accession numbers: Data for the phylogenetic analysis were obtained from sequences contained in the GenBank nucleotide sequence database The following strains were examined: These results indicate that S.

In this tree, Salmonella subspecies strains were grouped into two clusters. The first cluster contained S. Phylogenetic tree based on the nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA genes.

The scale indicates the percentage of base difference percent divergence. The sequence data for phylogenetic analysis were taken from the GenBank nucleotide sequence database for the following strains: Bacterial samples were subjected to PCR amplification of the gyrB gene region with degenerate primers. The amplified gyrB gene, a region of 1, bp, was sequenced from five different strains of Salmonellathree different strains of Shigellatwo different strains of Enterobacterone strain of E.

Alignment of the gyrB nucleotide sequences, adjusted to 1, bases, was performed by the computer program MegAlign. The percent divergence of E. As indicated in Fig. In other words, S. Phylogenetic tree based on the nucleotide sequences of gyrB genes.

The mean sequence obtained from direct sequencing of PCR products was used for the following strains: A direct comparison of salmoneloa genetic distance and the phylogenetic tree determined by the 16S rRNA sequence with those determined by the gyrB sequence was not possible because the bacterial strains analyzed were not the same.

However, the following observations could be made. First, the rate of genetic divergence of the gyrB sequence differed greatly from that of the salmoonella rRNA sequence. For example, compared with 16S rRNA, the gyrB analysis shows there is a 4- to fold increase in the length of branches between closely related species of Shigella and E.

Moreover, the topology of the phylogenetic tree based on the 16S rRNA sequence was quite different from that based on the gyrB sequence. Second, phylogenetic analysis using the gyrB nucleotide sequence determined a classification of the bacteria different from that determined by 16S rRNA analysis. For this study, data were gathered from the genes of clinical specimens and the genes were sequenced.

Alignment of the gyr B nucleotide sequences, adjusted to 1, bases, was done by the computer program MegAlign. The numbers of bacterial strains sharing the same sequence jakalah each group are indicated. On one hand, it has been reported that it is impossible to differentiate between E.

However, even samonella some Shigella strains are distributed among E. On the other hand, it was not possible to classify serogroups of Salmonella and E. It is interesting that E. In general, serogroup does not correspond to genotype. Indeed, our analysis showed that serogroup does not correspond to genotype.

Phylogenetic tree based on the nucleotide sequences of gyrB genes taken from clinical specimens. Amplified gyrB genes from five subspecies of Salmonellathree species of Shigellatwo species of Enterobacterone species of E.

Bacterial strains of the same species with the same gene sequence are displayed in one group; for example, the cluster labeled S. Phylogenetic-tree analysis is often used as a method to classify organisms.

Makalah Salmonella Typhi

Various genes have been examined for the analysis of phylogenetic relationships of SalmonellaShigellaand E. In general, 16S rRNA is most frequently used for such analyses; however, phylogenetic relationships between closely related species of Shigella and E. In terms of cell biology, Shigella spp.

Shigella strains are in reality clones of E. The percent divergences of E. These data are in accordance with the previous study using the 16S rRNA gene sequence 34indicating close relationships among these bacteria. This result gives ryphi comparable salmonepla those of studies with other genes 142028supporting the idea that Shigella strains are actually clones of E. The divergence values within or between species are smaller in 16S rRNA analysis than in previous studies using several housekeeping and invasion genes tyhi2161920 For example, in the nucleotide sequence of the isocitrate dehydrogenase gene, pairs of E.

Although the 16S rRNA gene is preferred for phylogenetic studies because tpyhi its attributes, such as little evidence for its lateral transfer 27the sequence variation of 16S rRNA is not as high as those of other genes in numerous studies. In the phylogenetic-tree analysis of gyrBS.

Like the 16S rRNA gene, the gyrB gene does sallmonella appear to be frequently horizontally transmitted and can be found in most, if not all, bacterial species 36 Many genes, especially those for catabolism, are known to spread horizontally among different bacterial species, and they cannot be used to trace the evolutionary records of host bacteria A comparison of Fig.

In the phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA, bacteria belonging to the same genus were not always located in the same cluster; by contrast, in the phylogenetic analysis using the gyrB gene, bacteria of maoalah same genus were clustered together.

In addition, the rate of base substitution was greater for the gyrB sequence than for the 16S rRNA sequence 936 Thus, certain bacterial strains were classified slamonella under the two phylogenetic analyses. It seems likely that phylogenetic analysis using the gyrB gene sequence will be able to classify some bacteria that cannot be classified by their 16S rRNA sequences. However, our results indicate that such closely related bacteria might be classified by gyrB analysis.

Approximately salmojella, serotypes of S. However, as serotype does not necessarily agree with genotype, it would be useful to have another means, such as gyrB gene analysis, to classify the subspecies of S.

In contrast to serotype assays, genotype assays for pathogenic bacteria may be expensive and require technical expertise, but saomonella could detect a wider range of bacterial strains and increase specificity 18which is useful when cross-reaction is observed with serotyping reagents.

As shown in Fig. Our results also show a mosaic relationship among pathotypes classified by O serogroup and genotypes classified by gyrB region. These results indicate lateral transfer of genes for O antigens 2031as well as genes for H antigens 23among E. The rate of evolution of the gyrB genetic region is higher than that of the 16S rRNA salmonekla, and the gyrB genetic region is found in all bacterial species.

We believe that the gyrB region will have high reliability for identifying pathogenic bacteria.

Although the 16S rRNA sequence method is a highly accurate and rapid method for identifying most bacteria to the genus level 33the gyrB sequence method might be more useful for identifying bacteria to the species level.

In practical terms, this makalqh that whereas it is easy to amplify the 16S rRNA sequence because it is highly conserved across bacteria, it is harder to amplify the gyrB region because of its variability. However, the primer set developed by Yamamoto and Harayama 36 for amplification of the bacterial gyrB region by PCR simplifies the rapid amplification of this region. It is known that the amplified gyrB region we used includes the region involving quinolone resistance 11 However, the clinical specimens in our study do not include quinolone-resistant strains data not shownindicating that this resistance does not influence the interpretation of our results.