Download scientific diagram | Diagrama de bloques de la elaboraci?n de galletas fortificadas from publication: SYNTHESIS OF HALOGENATED AND. Producto Galletas de avena fortificadas – Bringas, Llatas y Loayza. Geraldine Mercedes Llatas Ortiz. Loading Unsubscribe from Geraldine Mercedes Llatas. Marias, Gamesa. Contiene 1 pieza. Peso neto. g ( oz). Galletas varias; Son galletas fortificadas muy saludables, contiene Hierro, vitamina A, Nacina.

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Impact of the two different iron fortified cookies on treatment of anemia in preschool children in Brazil. Faculty of Public Health. Nutritional intervention in pre-school children using cookies prepared with wheat flour enriched with iron and folic acid CWFFeFA and cookies prepared with cowpea Vigna unguiculata L. Food acceptance was evaluated daily.

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The prevalence of anaemia in G1 and G2 before the nutritional intervention was After intervention, the prevalence decreased to 1. Food acceptance by pre-school children in G1 and G2 was Walp variedad BRS-Xiquexique, biofortificados con hierro y zinc, por los preescolares para controlar la anemia ferropriva.

Anaemia is defined by the World Health Organization WHO as fortiifcadas condition in which the haemoglobin content in the blood is lower than the normal as a result of the shortage of one or more essential nutrients, no matter what is the cause of disability 1.

Other possible causes are haemolysis malaria, glucosephosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, a genetic defect in haemoglobin synthesis and nutritional deficiencies, such as vitamin A, B12, C and folic acid 3.

Anaemia is the last stage of iron deficiency, which is characterized by a reduction of haemoglobin levels with impairment of body functions, which are more severe according to the level of that reduction. In addition, this reduction is the universal parameter to set this anaemia.

Anaemia is a public health problem that affects populations in both rich and poor countries 4. Previous studies have reported the nutritional changes that occurred in the last three balletas and have indicated that the prevalence of anaemia assumed epidemic proportions and became the main deficiency problem in Brazil in terms of magnitude.

Marias, fortified cookies , Gamesa / Net Wt. 29.98 oz

Given the importance of this pathology in the world, numerous countries conduct interventions to reduce anaemia; particularly in the groups most susceptible to its devastating effects: Another strategy currently used with the goal of decreasing micronutrient deficiency involves the increase in the nutrient content of food products using conventional breeding or genetic engineering, thereby allowing the identification of genotypes with high levels of iron, zinc, and protein, among other elements.

These genotypes are assessed as to their performance in cross-breeding forrtificadas and, consequently, their capacity for transmission of superior genetic traits, i. These fortified crops include cowpeas Vigna unguiculata L. Walp enriched in iron average content of Considering the magnitude of nutritional deficiency, its importance as a public health problem, and its deleterious galletad on human health, this study conducted a nutritional intervention program among pre-school children attending municipal day-care centres using two dry cookies formulation: The sample size was determined using Epi Info software, version 6.

The procedure for determining the sample size was as follows: The following children were included in the study: The study sample was divided into two groups: Sample selection was performed at random.

Socioeconomic status parental education, age, occupation, family income, sanitation conditions, housing type, and control of parasite infections. Weight was obtained using a portable digital scale, model ultra slim Wiso W, with a capacity of up to kg with g accuracy, and height was measured using a portable vertical -anthropometer, model person-check KaWegraduated in centimetres. To perform these measurements, pre-school children were required to be barefoot, wear standardised uniforms, and maintain their heads in the Frankfort plane.

To investigate the prevalence of anemic deficiency, haemoglobin level was measured using the cyanmethemoglobin method 13,14after disposing of children with other diseases or other forms of anaemia. Two age categories were considered: The two formulations were prepared following a protocol detailed by Frota et al. For cookie preparation, approximately 8 g of the dough was rolled manually. Raw cookies were placed on trays and baked in a domestic oven at approximately o C for approximately 20 minutes.


After baking, the cookies were left in the open air to cool and were then transferred to polyethylene bags 30 g capacity without stamping, and each student in both G1 and G2 was identified in the package by the school name, shift, class period, class ID, student name, and student number. The protein concentration was determined using the -macro-Kjeldahl method with a conversion factor of 6. The carbohydrate content was calculated by difference. The original method was adapted regarding the wavelengths to analyse each mineral as follows: In addition, the paired t-test was used to assess the difference in the mean haemoglobin levels before and after the nutritional intervention with the two formulations, Student’s t test was used to assess potential associations, and the chi-square and McNemar tests were used to evaluate the differences between the prevalence rates of anaemia before and after intervention with the two formulations.

The participating families comprised 4 family members on average. The average education level of the mother and father was 9. Table I lists the variables evaluated in G1 and G2 before and after intervention: The results indicate that the mean values were very similar between the two study periods, except the haemoglobin level in G2, which was significantly different before and after intervention. Figure I shows the results before and after the intervention for G1 and G2. The haemoglobin level significantly increased from In Table IIit is shown the chemical composition of cookies that were used in this study.

Considering this high acceptance rate, the use of both cookie formulations as a nutritional supplement in the diet of pre-school children is effective in lowering iron-deficiency anaemia. A one-week menu was examined with respect to calories and levels of proteins, calcium, iron, vitamin C, and vitamin A.

With respect to nutritional adequacy of the diet offered according to age in both CMEIs. By contrast, the amount of minerals iron, calcium and vitamin A was inadequate and below the values recommended Pre-school children at the CMEIs exhibited a similar profile, making the study sample homogeneous because the participants were located in the same area and neighbourhood and had similar socioeconomic and cultural status.

Iron-deficiency anaemia transcends the biological aspects and includes social and cultural dimensions. In this gallettas, among the family-related variables, the education of the mother has been reported to influence the development of anaemia because it affects the fortificzdas provided to the children 20, This variable averaged 9.

The prevalence of anaemia among pre-school children decreased from These results indicate a lower prevalence of anaemia than has been reported frtificadas other studies, such as the work of Gondim et fortidicadas. This decreased prevalence was positively affected by the improvement in housing conditions, income, and education level. Studies show that the prevalence of anaemia is from moderate to severe magnitude in many countries, including European countries 26 and highlight the importance of doing interventions to control it as if it was a serious public health problem.

The control of anaemia can be achieved with preventive measures such as the provision of foods with wheat flour fortified with iron and folic acid to vulnerable populations, gallettas pre-school children, following the recommendations of RDC issued by the Ministry of Health Other strategies include diet diversification, nutritional education programs, and promotion of breastfeeding.

Furthermore, the control of anaemia involves drug therapy with ferrous sulphate through the iron supplementation program of the Ministry of Health 28,29, Iron deficiency in childhood stems from diet inadequacy balance between iron sources and substances that increase or decrease iron bioavailability and not from the unavailability of iron-containing food products.

Marias, fortified cookies , Gamesa / Galletas Marias fortificadas

Studies conducted in Brazil have indicated that food fortification fortifiicadas succeeded in decreasing the prevalence of anaemia at the national level and overseas and that this strategy is easy, safe, inexpensive, effective in the short and medium term, and able to improve food quality for the population 25, Rortificadas study proposed the use of cookie formulation containing the cowpea cultivar BRS-XiqueXique as fortificaxas iron source as well as honey, which is also a source of iron that is highly appreciated and consumed by the Brazilian population.


The cookie was prepared with wheat flour enriched with iron and folic acid. The cookie formulations were prepared carefully to ensure quality, with the aim of obtaining the safest product possible within the quality standards established by the legislation. Both cookies had a good acceptance by children, because the results and the daily monitoring of the intervention showed that almost all of the children ate the whole package 30 g daily during the intervention period Table III.

Habaneras,Fortified biscuit, high in fiber, Gamesa / Galletas fortificadas alta en fibra, Gamesa

In addition, they had a greater amount of iron, with greater effectiveness in controlling anaemia and increased haemoglobin. The nutritional intervention adopted yielded excellent results in decreasing the prevalence of anaemia in both G1 and G2.

The prevalence rate decreased from The use of wheat flour frtificadas with iron and folic acid, as required by the RDC No. In that study, the authors compared haemoglobin levels and the occurrence of anaemia in pregnant women before and after flour fortification and fortifkcadas a prevalence rate of The study by Bagni et fortifiadas. Of note, the impact of the nutritional intervention was higher than the impact of drug therapy because the acceptance rate of cookies and the level of enrolment in the study were high.

Moreover, supplementation with ferrous sulphate faces resistance among children and their parents because of adverse effects including vomiting, diarrhoea, stained teeth, constipation, and cramps, in addition to fortifocadas to take the ferrous sulphate supplement and rejection by the child The use of two types of fortified cookie formulations one prepared with fortified cowpea flour and the other prepared with fortified wheat flour decreased the prevalence of anaemia among pre-school children, and the consumption of the food product prepared with enriched cowpea flour led to a more pronounced decrease firtificadas anaemia.

Therefore, cowpea is a viable option for use in nutritional gslletas because of its low cost and routine use by the population, and this ingredient resulted in a food product with adequate composition and acceptance by the population. In addition, its effectiveness as a dietary supplement in the control of iron-deficiency anaemia was demonstrated. Risk factors for anemia in children under 6 years of age in Ethiopia: Analysis of the data from the cross-sectional Malaria Indicator Survey, Guidelines on food fortification with micronutrients.

Ecol Food Nutr ;54 ffortificadas Worldwide Prevalence of Anaemia World Health Organization; Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia ;10 2: Anaemia as a public health problem: Fortified food made by extrusion of a mixture of chickpea corn and bovine lung controls iron-deficiency anaemia in preschool children.

Enrichment of cereal grains with fortifucadas Agronomic or genetic biofortification? Production, Breeding and Potential of cowpea in Brazil. Use of cookies prepared with cowpea flour in pre-school children with iron-deficiency anaemia. Standard methods of clinical chemistry. Use of snacks with high iron content in pre-school children for the control of iron-deficiency anaemia. Lucha contra la anaemia nutricional, especialmente contra la carencia de hierro: Fight against nutritional anaemia, especially iron deficiency anaemia: Use of cowpea Vigna unguiculata L.

Walp flour in the preparation of bakery products. Determinants of anaemia in children. Jornal de Pediatria ;78 4: Risk factors for anaemia in children aged 6 to 12 months in Brazil.