Conversations with Mani Ratnam by Baradwaj Rangan from Only Genuine Products. Educational and Professional Books · Academic Texts. For the first time ever, Mani Ratnam opens up here, to Baradwaj Rangan, in a series of freewheeling conversations— candid, witty, pensive, and His writings on cinema, music, art, books, travel and humour have been published in various . This book, unique to Indian cinema, illuminates the genius of the man behind In short, like Mani Ratnam’s films, Conversations surprises.

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In as much as Google would let me read which is not muchthe writer has managed to keep Mani Ratnam in the centre piece of the narrative. Mani Ratnam comes across as genuine and open, baring details of how he got into films a little late, his naivete initially about how they are made.

I would love to get my hands on the book soon. What I find hard to believe is that Ratnam, Rangan do not acknowledge the fact that being from a filmy family one definitely has the safety net and the contacts, help needed whenever one needed to reach out to perhaps anyone in any department. How else would one get an Ilayaraja, Mahendra etc to sign up for a first time director on low budget!? Good one from Rangan though!

Account Options Sign in. This book, unique to Indian cinema, illuminates the genius of the man behind these and eighteen other masterly films. For the first time ever, Mani Ratnam opens up here, to Baradwaj Rangan, about his My library Help Advanced Book Search.

Conversations with Mani Ratnam. For the first time ever, Mani Ratnam opens up here, to Baradwaj Rangan, about his art, as well as his life before films.

In these freewheeling conversations—candid, witty, pensive, and sometimes combative—many aspects of his films are explored. Ratnam elaborates in a personal vein on his choice of themes, from the cojversation in urban relationships Agni Natchatiram to the rents in the national fabric Bombay ; his directing of children Anjali ; his artful use of songs; his conveersation use of lighting; as also his making of films in Hindi and other languages.

Conversations with Mani Ratnam by Baradwaj Rangan

There are fond recollections of collaborations with stalwarts like Balu Mahendra, P. Sreeram, Thotta Tharrani and Gulzar, among many others.

And delectable behind-the-scenes stories—from the contrasting working styles of the legendary composer Ilaiyaraaja and Rahman to the unexpected dimensions Kamal Haasan brought to the filming of Nayakan to what Raavan was like converrsation originally conceived.

User Review – Flag as inappropriate Interesting read! Selected pages Title Page.

Contents About the Author Praise for the Book. Dedication ForewordA R Rahman. Common terms and phrases A.

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Dugo sa Bukang Liwayway: A commentary on its canon formation Gerard John Fortaleza William Shakespeare, Miguel Cervantes, Stephen Crane, Roland. Dugo sa bukang-liwayway by Rogelio Sikat, , University of the Philippines Press edition, in Tagalog. Dugo Sa Bukang-liwayway by Rogelio Sikat, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide.

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Download Citation on ResearchGate | Anisotropic Plates | Three main topics are considered: (1) the generalized plane stressed state of S. G. Lekhnitskii. tskiipdf. Uploaded by Ian Kelly. Analysis of holes in composite plates Mechanics of Laminated Composite Plates and Shells. Anisotropic Plates [S. Lekhnitskii, S. W. Tsai, T. Cheron] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.

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In the case when an anisotropic plate contains a triangular, oval, or square opening, the only solution available in the literature is an approximate solution for orthotropic plates with openings, which was obtained by Lekhnitskii using the complex variable formulation.

General Solutions of Anisotropic Laminated Plates | Journal of Applied Mechanics | ASME DC

Solutions for any kind of anisotropic plates with various openings are presented in this paper by applying the Stroh formalism and using the technique of conformal mapping. Unlike the former results, which have different orders of approximation for different openings, the solutions presented here have only one simple unified expression for various openings such as the ellipse, circle, crack, triangle, oval, and square.

Two special loading conditions are considered: Through the use of identities developed in the literature, the hoop stress along the opening boundary is obtained in real form.

The results show that the effect of anisotropy on the stress concentration is totally determined through the fundamental elasticity matrices N 1 and N 3 introduced by Stroh. Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Anisotropic Plates

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Buy Fracasos Exitosos: Cómo Crecer a Partir de Nuestros Errores Y Detectar Las Qué Hay En Cada Fracaso / Successful Failures by Bernardo Stamateas. Download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd. Flag for inappropriate content. Save. Fracasos Exitosos – Bernardo For Later. save. Related. Quiero un cambio / I Want a Change. Heridas emocionales / Emotional Wounds. See all books by Bernardo Stamateas.

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When humans interact each other, he wanted to manage the impression that he hopes will grow on otherpeople to it. Goffman’s dramaturgy approach views that. Konsep Dramaturgi Goffman Burke diri adalah “suatu hasil Teori Dramaturgi Erving Goffman tertuang dalam bukunya yang berjudul “The. Teori Pilihan Rasional; Teori Pertukaran Perilaku (Homans); Teori Pertukaran Sosial (Peter Blau); Teori Dramaturgi Erving Goffman; Teori Uses and Gratification.

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Goffman was the 73rd president of the American Sociological Association. His best-known contribution to social theory is his study of symbolic interaction. This took the form wrving dramaturgical analysisbeginning with his book, The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. His major areas of study included the sociology of everyday lifesocial interactionthe social construction of self, social organization framing of experience, and particular elements of social life such as total institutions and stigmas.

From Goffman attended St. John’s Technical High School in Dramaturtiwhere his family had moved that year. In he enrolled at the University of Manitobamajoring in chemistry.

Also during this time, he met the renowned North American sociologist, Dennis Wrong. Hart and Ray Birdwhistellgraduating in with a BA in sociology and anthropology.

In Goffman married Angelica Choate; intheir son Thomas was born. Angelica suffered from mental illness and died by suicide in Drmaturgi one point, in pursuit of his hobbies and ethnographic studies, he became a pit boss at a Las Vegas casino.

In Goffman dgamaturgi sociolinguist Gillian Sankoff. The following year, their daughter Alice was born. In Goffman became a faculty member in the sociology department at the University drakaturgi California, Berkeleyfirst as a visiting professor, then from as a full professor.

Hughes was the “most influential of his teachers”, according to Tom Burns. Though Goffman is often associated with the symbolic interaction school of sociological thought, he did not see himself as a representative of it, and so Fine and Manning conclude that he “does not easily fit within a specific school of sociological thought”. Goffman made substantial advances in the study of face-to-face interactionelaborated the ” dramaturgical approach ” to human interactionand developed numerous concepts that have had a massive influence, particularly in the field of the micro-sociology of everyday life.

Impression Management is defined as when an individual attempts to present an acceptable image to those around him or her verbally or gofvman Goffman does break from his connection with George Herbert Mead and Herbert Blumer in that while he does not reject the way in which individuals perceive themselves, he was more interested in the actual physical proximity or the “interaction order” that molds the self draaturgi Individuals present images of themselves based on how society thinks they should act in a particular situation.

This decision on how to act is decided based on the concept of definition of the situation. The definition are all predetermined and individuals choose how they will act by choosing the proper behavior for erbing social situation goffmwn are in. Goffman draws from William Thomas for this concept as well.

Ervin believed that people are born into a particular social class and so the definitions of the situations that they will encounter have been previously defined for them Despite his influence, according to Fine and Manning there are “remarkably few scholars who are continuing his work”, nor has there been a “Goffman school”; thus, his impact on social theory has been simultaneously “great and modest”.

Nonetheless, Fine and Manning note that Goffman is “the most influential American sociologist of the twentieth century”. Goffman’s early works consist of his graduate writings of — Goffman’s The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life was published inwith a revised edition in Goffman describes the theatrical performances that occur in face-to-face interactions. At the same time, the person that the individual is interacting with attempts to form an impression of, and obtain information about, the individual.

Society is not homogeneous; we must act differently in different settings. This recognition led Goffman to his dramaturgical analysis. He saw a connection between the kinds of “acts” that people put on in their daily lives and theatrical performances. In a social interaction, as in a theatrical performance, there is an onstage area where actors individuals appear before the audience; this is where positive self-concepts and desired impressions are offered.

But there is, as well, a backstage — a hidden, private area where individuals can be themselves and drop their societal roles and identities. Goffman is sometimes credited with having in coined the term “total institution”, [42] though Fine and Manning note that he had heard it in lectures by Everett Hughes [7] in reference to any type of institution in which people are treated alike and in which behavior is regulated.

The book is composed of four essays: Some Notes on the Vicissitudes of the Tinkering Trades”. Asylums has been credited with helping catalyze the reform of mental health systems in a number of countries, leading to reductions in the numbers of large mental hospitals and of the individuals locked up in them. In Behavior in Public PlacesGoffman again focuses on everyday public interactions.

He draws distinctions between several types of public gatherings “gatherings”, “situations”, “social occasions” and types of audiences acquainted versus unacquainted.

Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity examines how, to protect their dramaturggi when they depart from approved standards of behavior or appearance, people manage impressions of themselves — mainly through concealment. Stigma pertains to the shame that a person may feel when he or she fails to meet other people’s standards, and to the fear of being discredited — which causes the individual not to reveal his or her shortcomings.

Thus, a person with a criminal record may simply withhold that information from fear of being judged by whomever that person happens to encounter. Essays on Framaturgi Behavior is a collection of six Goffman essays.

The first four were originally published in the s, the fifth drqmaturgiand dramayurgi last was written for the collection.

BOURDIEU – Erving Goffman, Discoverer of the Infinitely Small – [PDF Document]

The first essay, “On Face-work”, discusses the concept of facewhich is the positive self-image that an individual holds when interacting with others. Goffman believes that face “as a sociological construct of interaction, is neither inherent in nor a permanent aspect of the person”.

Inconsistency in how a person projects him or herself in society risks embarrassment and discrediting. Therefore, people remain guarded, to ensure that they do not show themselves to others in an unfavorable light.

Goffman’s book Strategic Interaction is his contribution to game theory. It discusses the compatibility of game theory with the legacy of the Chicago School of sociology and with the perspective of symbolic interactionism. It is one of his few works that clearly engage with that perspective. Dramaturvi view on game theory was shaped by the works of Thomas Schelling.

Goffman presents reality tori a form of game, and discusses its rules and the various moves that players can make the “unwitting”, the “naive”, the “covering”, the “uncovering”, and the “counter-uncovering” while trying to get or hide an information.

An Essay on the Organization of Experience is Goffman’s attempt to explain how conceptual frames — ways to organize experience — structure an individual’s perception of society. A frame is a set of concepts and theoretical perspectives that organize experiences and guide the actions of individuals, groups and societies.

Frame analysisthen, is the study of the organization of social experience. To illustrate the concept of the frame, Goffman gives the example of a picture frame: The most basic frames are called primary frameworks.

A primary framework takes an individual’s experience or an aspect of a scene that would originally be meaningless and makes it meaningful. One type of primary framework is a natural framework, which identifies situations in the natural world and is completely biophysicalwith no human influences.

Erving Goffman

The other type of framework is a social framework, which explains events and connects them to humans. An example of a natural framework is the weather, and an example dramagurgi a social framework is a meteorologist who predicts the weather. Focusing on the social frameworks, Goffman seeks to “construct a general statement regarding the structure, or form, of experiences individuals have at any moment of their social life”.

Goffman saw this book as his magnum opusbut it was not as popular as dramaturg earlier works. In Frame AnalysesErving Goffman provides a platform for understanding and interpreting the interaction between individuals heori speech communication. In the chapter “The Frame Analyses of Talk,” the focus is put on how words are exchanged and what is being said, specifically in informal talk or conversation.

The concept of framing is introduced through an exploration of why misunderstandings occur in these basic, everyday conversations. He argues that they are more errors in verbal framing than anything else. The types of frames Goffman is considering are discussed in previous sections of the book, “fabrications, keyings, frame breaks, misframing, and, of course, frame disputes.

And what his listeners are primarily obliged to do is to show some kind of audience appreciation. This is why often a simple head nod or grunt is accepted as an appropriate response in conversation. Goffman explains that the way a conversation is keyed is ervijg to understanding the intent behind many utterances in everyday speech.

Key is probably best understood as the tone of the dialogue which can change numerous times during an interaction. Signaling a change in key is one way that framing often takes place, “special brackets will have to be introduced should he want to say something in a relatively serious way: Bauman details that a performance is dependent on it being properly keyed, without this, the display will not be successful.

His work on performance analyses is deeply indepted to what Goffman establishes here in “Frame Analyses. Context is one other element to framing that is essential. An awareness of these social framings is critical, just as is an awareness of the audience.

Goffman uses the metaphor of conversation being a stage play. The parallels go further, though. Goffman also claims that a speaker details a drama more often than they provide information.

Other similarities include engaging teoei the suspense the speaker is attempting to create. In both scenarios, you must put aside the knowledge that the performers know the outcome of the event being relayed and, in a sense, play along.

This is integral to his stance as he explains “the argument that much of talk consists of replayings and that these make no sense unless some form of storyteller’s suspense can be maintained shows the close relevance of frame-indeed, the close relevance of dramaturgy-for the organization of talk.

All of these things work in concert to provide a foundation of how talk is framed. In Gender Advertisementshe writes about how gender is represented in the advertising we all engage with in our everyday lives. He explains relative size, feminine touch, function ranking, the family, the ritualization of subordination, and licensed withdraw. Relative size means that the women represented in advertisements are generally shown shorter or smaller in comparison to men. Feminine touch is when a teorj touches a man or an object in a way that is very loose, and not gripping the object tightly.

Function ranking represents a hierarchy in the images, by way that the man is shown in front and largest in front of women and children. The family is typically depicted in a way that gives the father and a son a close relationship, and the mother and a daughter a close relationship. The ritualization of subordination is when women are shown in a lower ranking or worth of an image, and they are smaller, underneath, and overall of lesser importance to men.

Vramaturgi, licensed withdrawal is when a women is shown as not interested in the camera, or looking off into the distance with head and body cant.

Goffman analyzes all of these topics in a very in-depth and easy to understand format. With relative size, women are generally shown smaller or lower than men in terms of girth and height.

Women are frequently depicted touching persons or objects in a ritualistic manner, occasionally just barely touching the object or person.


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VC pilots accept collective agreement at Lufthansa Lufthansa has committed itself to filling at least aircraft with KTV pilots by the end of. 3/F, Hubin Lu, near Huangpi Nan Lu 湖滨路号3楼, 近黄陂南路. PHONE: WECHAT: . AREA: Huangpu. METRO: 8 mins walk from South. Assim, Lufthansa will not keep the plan announced to put in 40 planes purchased outside the collective agreement of the staff Group (KTV).

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Lufthansa and pilots union get the deal to last until 2022

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Lufthansa, pilots union agree on deal to do with pay, pensions. The two parties agreed on provisions for transitional payments, pension plans, the framework agreement on employment conditions and the collective wage agreement for the pilots of Lufthansa, Lufthansa Cargo and Germanwings. German airline Lufthansa and the pilot’s union Vereinigung Cockpit on Wednesday reached an agreement regarding all previously unresolved collective bargaining matters, the company said in a press statement.

The path is now clear for a comprehensive settlement with Vereinigung Cockpit on all unresolved lufthanda bargaining issues,” said Bettina Volkens, head of legal affairs and human resources at Deutsche Lufthansa AG. Today, I would like to thank everyone who made this success possible.

We have a lot of work ahead of us now, because we want to implement this settlement in collective bargaining agreements together with the union as quickly as lufthanwa, ” Volkens said. Read Post a comment.

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Prison Memoirs of an Anarchist has ratings and 29 reviews. David said: The punishment is certainly cruel and unusual in Prison Memoirs. The guards ar. In , Alexander Berkman, Russian émigré, anarchist, and lover of Emma Goldman, attempted to assassinate industrialist Henry Clay Frick. Free kindle book and epub digitized and proofread by Project Gutenberg.

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The act was intended both as retribution for the massacre of workers in the Homestead strike and as an incitement to revolution.

Captured and sentenced to serve a prison term of twenty-two years, Berkman struggled to make sense of the shadowy and brutalized world of the prison—one that hardly conformed to revolutionary expectation. Among other things, it contains his interesting account of homosexuality in prison, which was apparently one of the earliest times it was reported.

I would also recommend reading Emma Goldman’s Living my lifeas it contains a different person’s perspective on many of the same events, including interestingly various attempts to break Berkman out of prison.

I think this is by far the best thing Berkman wrote, a truly classic and moving autobiographic chapter from his life. He takes the reader through the maturing of his political ideas, as he endures years of cruel imprisonment.

Review Of Alexander Berkman’s ‘Prison Memoirs Of An Anarchist’

In parts I found it very harrowing, so steel your self. Not to blow my own trumpet, but my review ‘s a bit more in depth, pridon Basically that’s how I describe it to people, he is a cock at the beginning, but you can slowly see him becoming decent. Feel free to post your review to the library here as well if you like. The Stansted 15 protesters, who stopped a government deportation flight from taking off in March last year, have pgison been found guilty of breaching terror laws.

Prison Memoirs of an Anarchist by Alexander Berkman | : Books

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Prison memoirs of an anarchist – Alexander Berkman. Posted By working class s Jan 8 Prison memoirs of an anarchist The Homestead Strike Anarchism: The Alexander Berkman reader. Login or anarhist to post comments. Just to say that I think this is a really great book and I would definitely recommend it. Auld-bod Jan 8 Agree on Living My Life. Mar 2 Stansted 15 respond to guilty verdict.

Alexanderr Novel – Nanni Balestrini.

Review Of Alexander Berkman’s ‘Prison Memoirs Of An Anarchist’ | Leeds ABC

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Fredo Corvo – Iran: What after the repression of the Haft Tapeh workers and the steelworkers in Ahvaz? Christmas with the Gilets Jaunes. To the Occupy movement — the occupiers of Tahrir Square are alexandee you. The Situationists and automation. Siege at Wounded Knee,


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I bought WiFi dongle to my RPi and configured it. Brand is not so important, as I had access point from my Android phone and the internet worked on the RPi.

All I get is error “authentication request to the driver failed”. Nothing, RPi just won’t connect. What’s wrong with my D-Link router?

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Home Questions Tags Users Unanswered. Thus, it isn’t an issue with his router as you suggested you should check D-Link support areabut an issue with the Raspberry Pi, rendering this issue on-topic.

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From the on-topic help page: For the most part this includes: So this is definitely issue with the Raspberry Pi.

My WiFi dongle is: I am still searching for a solution.

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Se diseñaron los biorreactores, utilizando principios de similitud; para la producción del alcohol etílico, se diseñó un biorreactor del tipo Lecho Empacado . Inmovilización de levaduras en residuos lignocelulósicos para la producción de etanol en biorreactor de lecho empacado. En las fermentaciones realizadas en los biorreactores de lecho empacado con el biocatalizador (soporte + levaduras), se logró obtener un aumento en la.

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Received for review November 23 th, accepted May 16 th, final version May, 31 th Continuous processes with immobilized cells are a good alternative for improving the efficiency and the performance of alcoholic fermentations. The potential use of raw materials obtained from agro-industrial waste as supports for cell immobilization was recently evaluated. In this work, we evaluated the continuous production of ethanol in packed-bed reactors with yeast cells immobilized on wood shaving, cane bagasse, corn leave, and corn cob lignocellulosic waste.

We used glucose as a carbon source to establish the reference conditions and we made the fermentations with commercial sucrose.

We also evaluated the glucose syrup obtained from cassava flour as alternative substrate. The experiments were performed on a laboratory level in column reactors of mL. The cane bagasse was the material on which the highest amount of cells was immobilized. A value of 0. For the fermentation performed with glucose, the productivity reached was A similar value, In the fermentations performed with glucose syrup, a higher amount of ethanol was obtained in the process that used corn cob as the carrier.

The results obtained have allowed us to establish the potential this lignocellulosic waste has as empacaddo for cell immobilization for the continuous production of ethanol, and the possibility of using glucose syrup as an alternative substrate. Las experimentaciones fueron realizadas a nivel de laboratorio en reactores de columna de mL.

One of the more relevant biofuels for the substitution of fossil fuels is ethanol [1], which is mainly produced by alcoholic fermentation in batch processes. However, the performance and costs of production of this technology are still high empcado to fossil fuels [2]. Many possibilities of optimization have been suggested for obtaining this biofuel, and one of them has to do with emacado usage of more efficient production eempacado. The continuous processes are an alternative for improving the efficiency and performance of alcoholic biorfeactor and for reducing the costs of production.

The continuous processes that use immobilized cells show several advantages with respect to continuous processes with free cells [3,18,20]. The immobilization matrixes more frequently e,pacado have been polymeric gels like alginate, where the cells are immobilized for entrapment into the gel.

However, this method of immobilization is not too viable on an industrial scale, due to the high cost of raw material and the relative complexity of preparation of the biocatalysts carrier-cell with respect to the operative lifetime of the process [4,21,14]. We also evaluated the glucose syrup obtained from cassava flour as an alternative substrate. The fermenting medium used for the experiments was the following: The pH was set to biorreactof.

Carriers for immobilization The lignocellulosic waste used were wood shaving, cane bagasse, corn leave, and corn cob, which were obtained from some agro industries in the region. We obtained pieces of material of sizes between 3.

Immobilization process The cellular immobilization was carried out in a column reactor of mL, provided with a temperature control jacket. A Cole Parmer peristaltic pump model was used, operating at a flow of 0.

The process of immobilization was carried out for 12 h. Batch fermentation Once the immobilization process in the column bioreactor was finished, we began the batch fermentation by pumping the medium fermentation until the reactor filled up. The fermentation time of 12 h. We took the sample at the end of the fermentation.

Continuous fermentation For continuous fermentation, a feeding flow of 1. The established time of residence t was 3 h, and the reactor was operated this way for 6 times of residence 18 h.

Before starting the continuous process, we carried out the stages of cell immobilization and batch fermentation previously described. Stable system operation was achieved after the fourth residence time, when the sugar concentration in the samples was similar.

The samples were taken at the output of the reactor, once the system was in a stable state. Analytic methods The total sugar quantification was performed by the DNS Dinitrosalicylic acid colorimetric method. The absorbance reading was done with a spectrophotometer Spectronic Genesis 2, modelserial no. LR at nm [8]. The biorrfactor of biomass was determined by optic density at nm using a curve of dry weight. The concentration of alcohol was determined by HPLC.

Copy of biorreactor de lecho empacado by judith galvan bautista on Prezi

We used a CH column with an internal diameter of 7. The flow of the mobile phase was 0. The detection by UV absorbance was set to nm. The amount ldcho immobilized biomass was established by the modified dry-weight technique [9]. In order to confirm immobilization and determine the differences between the carriers, we obtained images by scanning electronic microscopy SEM.

Figure 1 shows the results obtained in the cell immobilization performed on the 4 carriers evaluated. It is observed that the cane bagasse was the material in which the highest amount of cells was immobilized, 0. The process of immobilization was carried out with a flow of 0. For the wood shaving and corn cob, we obtained an amount of immobilized biomass of 0.

In the case of the corn cob, the immobilization was obtained under the same conditions; that is, a flow of 0. For the wood shaving, the amount of immobilized biomass was obtained lscho a flow of 3.

The corn leave carrier was the material in which the lowest amount of cells was immobilized. The value obtained was 0. The fermentations with glucose as the carbon source were performed using cane bagasse as the carrier. The reactor was fed with fermentation medium throughout the peristaltic pump. The filter attached to the reactor output was used to retain the cells that were not immobilized within the process.

The kinectics of the immobilized cells was determined during 12 h in a batch fermentation with an initial amount of cells of 0. In this system, the substrate consumption and generation of the product was given only by the immobilized cells thanks to the filtering equipment installed at the reactor output.

The final concentration of ethanol obtained was We obtained a consumption of The parameters obtained in the batch process are shown in Table 1. For the continuous process, we used a time of residence of oecho h and a flow of 1.

Un biorreactor Novela de alta densidad de cultivo de diversas comunidades microbianas

The samples were taken during 6 t equivalent to 18 h. Prior biordeactor the start of the continuous process, we performed a batch stage of 12 h.

We noticed that the system stabilizes when it passes the fourth time of residence 4 t. The consumption of glucose was high when it passed the first time of residence 1 t. However, upon reaching stable operation, the value was 1. The production of ethanol obtained at the output of the reactor was The productivity reached was Table 2 shows the parameters obtained in the continuous fermentation.

The results obtained in the borreactor fermentations are significant if compared to the results obtained by other researchers [12]. Additionally, we reached a better productivity than Plessas S. We made continuous fermentation using the biocatalysts obtained with the four materials.

Yeast immobilization in lignocellulosic wastes for ethanol production in packed bed bioreactor

As a carbon source, we evaluated sucrose and glucose syrup obtained from cassava flour. Figures 4 biorreavtor 5 show the results obtained for the continuous fermentation carried out with sucrose.

As observed in Fig. The highest concentration of ethanol was reached in the fermentation that used the cane bagasse as a carrier. Although the sugars are not completely consumed at the end of the process, the production of ethanol was sustained in a very similar value than the one obtained with glucose, reaching a productivity of Table 3 shows the values of productivity reached with the other materials.

The productivities reached in fermentations with boirreactor immobilized on corn leaves, corn cob, and wood shaving are similar to each other. The consumption of sucrose in the fermentations is different to the consumption of glucose Fig.

The maximum theoretical yield of sucrose to ethanol is 0. Differences in yield may result from variations in the microenvironmental conditions generated within the bioreactor, probably caused by the particular characteristics of each carrier [19].

The results of the fermentations carried out with glucose syrup obtained from cassava flour are shown in Figs. The fermentation which produced the highest amount of ethanol was the one using corn cobs as a carrier.

These results are very relevant if compared with the values obtained in the traditional batch fermentations as well as the results obtained by other researches, who used different materials in the immobilization of cells for the production of ethanol [11—20]. At the output of the reactor we obtained concentrations from These results are similar to the values obtained with the ldcho.

Table 4 shows the parameters obtained in the continuous fermentation with glucose syrup as a carbon source. However, these values are higher than the ones obtained in the fermentation with glucose. This is possibly due to the fact that glucose syrup contains other fermentable sugars such as maltose.

This indicates the potential that glucose syrup has as an alternative substrate for ethanol production. Figure 8 shows the cells immobilized on each of the four evaluated carriers. Initially, the cells biorreacto more affinity for folds and rough surfaces. However, as the contact of the cells with the carrier increases, and the fermentation time passes, we expected the immobilization to occur on the whole surface of the carrier.

We could appreciate some differences between the surfaces of the four carriers. The features of the surfaces may change the process of cells immobilization as well as the yield in the production of ethanol.