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A ferociously cool Cold War thriller from the author of The Ipcress Deighton’s third novel has become a classic, as compelling and suspenseful now . (Editor’s note: This is the ninth installment in our ongoing Friday blog series highlighting great but forgotten books. Today’s selection comes. Funeral in Berlin, UK first edition now – see photo) on the first editions has a photo of Len Deighton and Michael Caine from The Ipcress File movie shoot.
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Refresh and try again. Open Preview See a Problem? Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. Preview — Funeral in Berlin by Len Deighton. Berlin with its infamous wall symbolized the Cold War as did no other place.

It was like theatre, but is war for real. And he writes with effortless mastery. Published first published Edgar Award Nominee for Best Novel To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up.

To ask other readers questions about Funeral in Berlinplease sign up. Lists with This Book. Funefal 23, Russ Melrose rated it it was amazing. I quite enjoyed this Len Deighton novel. So I thought I’d give the novels a try.

funwral The writing is sharp and witty and Deighton’s style is quite unique. Funeral in Berlin is a spy novel set in the ’60s. Of course, if you’re looking for a spy or secret agent in the James Bond mold, you won’t find him here. The novel centers around a proposed smuggling of a scien I quite enjoyed this Len Deighton novel. The novel centers around a proposed smuggling of a scientist across the Berlin wall.

The characters are colorful and interesting even the bureaucrats and everyone seems to have their own agenda. Our deiguton has to figure out who’s after what, and at times he struggles to do so. A clever plot that unfolds nicely. Bottom line, this is a cerebral spy thriller–not really a lot of action. If you enjoy quality writing and an intelligent spy novel, you might want to deightkn it a try.

Looking back, the Communists were a worthy enemy.

Funeral In Berlin by Len Deighton (1964)

There were no suicide vests or improvised explosive devices aimed at innocent civilians. Religious wars are always the most brutal. But after the ugliness and indiscriminate savagery of the current Sunni Muslim jihad against the West, I grow downright nostalgic about the s. Lately, I have been reading the three great spy novelists of that time—with great pleasure. I just finished Funeral in Looking back, the Communists were a worthy enemy.

I just finished Funeral in Berlin by one of them, the great Deightin Deighton. Funeral in Berlin is typical of the period. The hero, who is called Harry Palmer in the movies but is unnamed in the books, arranges to transfer a Russian scientist to West Berlin by means of a coffin.

No one seems to be trustworthy. The people who are supposedly his allies are an untrustworthy lot: In comparison, James Bond is almost never surprised by villains who are ceighton to be on the same side as him. There are all those lovely girls, and Felix Leiter of the CIA appears as a supporting hero feighton several of the novels.

Beroin all 4 comments.

Originally published on my blog here in January Because it is the main focus of the Bernard Samson deihton, Berlin might appear to be something of an obsession with Deighton. It actually features remarkably rarely in his other novels, particularly considering its unique position during the Cold War as a bastion of the West surrounded by the Soviet bloc.

: Funeral in Berlin (): Len Deighton: Books

It does, however, feature heavily in the third Harry Palmer novel, deithton the title obviously indicates. The plot of Lem in Berlin is apparen Originally published on my blog here in January But it soon becomes obvious that this isn’t quite what is going on – why, for example, are those involved so insistent that the scientist’s fake papers should be in a particular name when any would do for what they are claiming to want them for?

The whole of this novel, like Deighton’s first two, revolves around things not being quite what they seem, right up to the ending with its particularly surprising revelations.

This was not the first time I’d read eeighton novel; I’d forgotten the details but remembered the gist – and still found it exciting. Deighton’s novels do tend to be designed around this kind of misdirection, and it is of course a style particularly appropriate to the spy novel. Deivhton setting of Berlin is atmospheric, more because it is full of nervous, posturing tough guys both would-be and really tough deightom the descriptions are not as fully developed as they became in later years when Deighton’s novels increased in length Funeral in Berlin is less than half as long than Berlin Gamefor instance.

The most sympathetic character, as far as Palmer is concerned, is a Russian KGB colonel; for him, the distinction in the espionage business is between professionals and amateurs, rather than between friends and enemies. The world of the spy as documented by Deighton continued to be a male dominated one through his entire career, and in fact never completely loses the old boy network feel that Palmer is so cynical about in The Ipcress file Bernard Samson complains about this twenty years later on.

Here, the two female characters are good looking young women, one Palmer’s secretary and lover who does most of the routine work assigned to him, and the other a rather naive agent for some other power, whose seduction of Palmer seems to have slipped out of a James Bond story.

Having mentioned Ian Fleming’s famous spy in this context, though, I should point out that Deighton has moved on from Fleming ‘s insistent misogyny. Palmer is a much deightob but less flamboyant berlib than Bond, too. Apart from The Ipcress File, Funerzl in Berlin is the best of deigghton Harry Palmer novels, sharing its best quality – an ability to surprise even after all these years.

Deighton overcooked at times — “we get it! I understand from wikipedia that there was a court case and this paragraph was removed from later editions. As the light from the window moved across his features, I could see the handsome ground plan of his bombed-out face.

Now the powdery skin, sun-lamped to a pale nicotine colour, was supported only by his cheek-bones, like a tent when the guy ropes are slackened. A man in a Mini shouted ‘You stupid bastard! Such amateurs that finally someone standing by couldn’t watch their bungling any longer, and took over. That’s what America had done in two Word Wars. Perhaps it was all part of a vast British conspiracy. I enjoyed this story. In some aspects, I had no idea what was going on, but at the same time, it didn’t matter.

This is a Cold War spy mystery, that meanders along to its ending but is so well-written, that it was a pleasure to read. The basic premise is that the main character, Harry Salzman, a British operative, is in Berlin trying to arrange for the smuggling of a British scientist from the East through the Berlin wall back to the West. But that is the story at its simplest. The tale wanders I enjoyed this story. The tale wanders from London to Berlin, east and west, to Czechoslovakia and France and contains a cast of characters, from Salzman to his capable assistant one of my favourite characters even if she is only rarely in itJean to his boss, Dawlish, the Russian, Stok, etc that you love meeting and enjoy the interactions.

Each chapter discusses the rules of chess and various plays and moves and ultimately, this is the crux of the story, a chess game with players feinting and moving across the board until the end. And who will win the game? You have to read Funeral in Berlin. Jan 25, Sairam Krishnan rated it really liked it. A sparkling, racy, supersmart cold war spy story that packs more than a punch. I enjoyed it immensely and I think this book has brought me back full circle to my old love for historically accurate and inspired genre novels.

John Le’ Carre, here I come again! Sep 12, Stewart Sternberg rated it it was amazing. This is not a casual read. The plot is complicated, there are numerous devastating plot twists, and a shocker reveal at the end. Jan 04, Nooilforpacifists rated it really liked it Shelves: This was fun–zany, not as serious as the Samson works. And, the real mystery is revealed only at the end. Ovviamente Britannia rules, ma va bene lo stesso. Avevo visto dei film tratti dai romanzi di Leighton, ma non mi aspettavo che fosse un romanziere completo.

Una bella sorpresa, soprattutto considerando che ho altri tre suoi romanzi che mi aspettano! Nov 28, Colin Harding rated it really liked it.

Funeral in Berlin – Wikipedia

As ever with Len Deighton, this rattles along at a good old pace, but rush it at your peril. The plot is sinuous, and much is left to implication – many of the key plot points aren’t explicit, and personally I like this, with the beglin on the reader to join the dots. The shadowy world of s espionage is painted well, along with its relationship with normal life. Unlike James Bond, our unnamed protagonist goes home to make his tea.

This is what I’ve always liked about Lrn work, and a styl As ever with Len Deighton, this leen along at a good old pace, but rush it at your peril. This is what I’ve always liked about Deighton’s work, and a style that critically wasn’t lost in the film adaptation – Harry Palmer is cynical and rebellious. The best part of this book though has to be Deighton’s sometimes caustic view of the world he portrays, with dry, sarcastic wit evident throughout, and some wonderful turns of phrase.

Dec 09, Simon rated feighton it was amazing.


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Summary answer

Want to see what Emacs is capable of?! Getting standard Mac key bindings to work in Emacs?

I’m running vanilla Emacs downloaded refcars the main site on my Mac. How can I get Mac key bindings for symbols like an em dash option-shift-hyphen and degree symbol option-shift-8 working?

Index of /afs/cs/project/ai-repository-9/ai/util/lang/lisp/util/emacs/refcard

It seems like Aquamacs is supposed to address this and other issues e. If you want to use option for the standard purpose, one way to that is to remap command to be the meta key. emaca

The price is that you now are using command as meta. And that works perfectly refcarrd for people who are used to enter accents and other non standard alphabetical signs!

If you do that, then you lose having symmetric shift keys on both sides, which means that many Meta commands become awkward to type. I prefer having fully symmetric modifier keys. But to each their taste. Isn’t Emacs support standard macOS standard key bindings already?

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Sine the English version of Degenesis: Rebirth was released just now I have to admit that I have never seen a Pen&Paper-RPG into which. Degenesis: Rebirth is the second edition of the Degenesis table top RPG. It’s a post-apocalyptic game, set in a transformed Europe, years. An RPG with not one but two high budget live action trailers, that despite the heinous sin Spitalian diagnoses a specimen of Homo Degenesis with bad breath.
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Degenesis is set in the far future, insome years since the end of the world. In this game the world ended quickly and violently when a swarm of asteroids smashed into the planet, puncturing the crust in places and the resulting lava flows remodelling the surface.

Humanity, a fraction degenesus it, survived and in Degenesis players can choose from one of seven cultures, from thirteen cults and twenty-one clans.

Brace yourself for impact: The remarkable Degenesis RPG is coming

The asteroid storm was just the start. These missiles from space brought a strange virus with them which now runs rampant, infecting people, mutating them and turning them into a new race of apex predator — Homo Degenesis. Even though the game is a few years old, degeensis might not yet have seen Degenesis in your local game store, but that could well change. Geek Native also understands that conversations about an American distribution deal are underway.


Degenesis is an easy RPG to spot. The Degenesis books are packed with it.

DEGENESIS REBIRTH // Core rules set for the Primal Punk Tabletop RPG

The first book, Primal Punk, has pages of full colour and introduces the world, the history and the cultures of the day. Katharsys, the second book and another pages, is the revised rule system. There are over illustrations between these two books.

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Brace yourself for impact: The remarkable Degenesis RPG is coming

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unhernehmensplanung The current third wave of globalization since ensued with the end of the system-wide pact confrontation. The relative arbitrariness unternehjensplanung transnational interactions is not a result of an erosion of regulations, but must be interpreted as outcome of political decision-processes. These developments left their mark on the operational environment of the international state system.

Non-governmental organisations of the latter kind, both in the political, journalistic and scientific discourse, are being customarily referred to as terror or terrorist organisations. Obviously, by means of rather sinister associations, the mere use of such attributes implies a negative context.

Basically, this would entail no great disadvantage to the scientific discourse, would not this deficiency extend to the content dispute and thus to the proceedings of discourses, kept up in the long run not as informative-designative but as valuative-prescriptive [3].

As a result of misperceptions, reflected appropriately in referring – regardless of their effective use of resources – to all forms of anti-regime organisations, as well as autonomist, separatist and irredentist organisations, as terrorist groups. To counteract this trend, the authors of this article would like to introduce the concept of the counter-elitist power organisation in order to enhance the scientific discourse.

Non-governmental organisations are structured associations of individuals who, on a private basis, unite under counter-elitist political, social and socio-economic ideals, and represent the latter in public. Companies and mafia organisations or political entrepreneurs and their transnational varieties comprise the class of profit-oriented NGOs.

The category of non-profit organisations are composed from sub-divisions of personal associations, business associations, churches and influential organisations, forming a transnational cooperative to help promote their interests in a unternehmendplanung world.

The array of common NGOs and of the non-profit organizations compete with each other in order to gain political power and to implement domination, thereby assuming a special position, as their functions entail socially binding decisions and the implementation of legal and budgetary issues through effectual means.

Specifically, the object of conflict – in the context of domination and exercise thereof – indirectly gains direct access to the levers of power. The non-governmental factions mentioned are permanent associations of like-minded people who share together common ideals with regard to the formation of various societal subsystems and intend to realize the latter by the takeover of government responsibility.

As long as the competition for the acquisition of political position within the apparatus of domination is being conducted by standards and regulations in fixed orbits, thus institutionalised, and the ambition of decision-makers elite of such non-governmental factions, in order to secure permanence in office, do not seek the complete elimination of political competitors, organised units as uhternehmensplanung parties are, to be referred to as parties!

Parties in this context are existing since the 18th century, and since the French Revolution. If the ambition of decision-makers of an organisation of power implies the annihilation of political competition, as well ehrmsnn a fundamental revision of political structures or order, then, based on the study of “Power and Society” [5]penned by Harold D.

Lasswell and Abraham Kaplan, they may justly be described as a counter-elite, and their respective organisations as counter-elitist power organisations. A range of means is available to such organisations in order to achieve a change in the political structure or order. Roughly, one can categorize these means into violence and subversion [6]. Wherever the organised and systematic application of force plays a crucial role, targeted assassinations, terrorist operations, guerrilla operations or the use of classic conventional war tactics are involved.

Tactics of subversion might be employed in a supplemental or even primary role; in this case, an attempt would be mounted to deprive the political class of the ability to rule over tracts of their territory or even over the entire territory, by means of infiltration or counter-mobilisation of the mass public. The sociological reappraisal of the agenda settings of such organisations will also be achieved with phrases such as ‘socialist-revolutionary movement’ and vague hints regarding autonomy and self-determination of peoples or ethnic groups, mainly lacking precision.

To assess both width and depth of elitist agendas it is advisable to revert to the concept of international revisionism. Although the concept of “Revisionism”, established 20 years ago by Barry Buzan in the scientific discourse to classify political currents that seek internehmensplanung permanent change of order or structure in the international state system, it is not too widespread. International revisionism can be unternehmensplnung, after Buzan, radical or revolutionary [7].

Orthodox revisionism remains confined to its enrmann, i. The radical variant lies between those two and contrives to connect a basic improvement of its state of power with a moderate reform of the mentioned rules. Since political movements of such an alignment tend to harbour their own vision of internal control and social order particularly radical and revolutionary revisionismthis system can also be applied to the collation of internal conflicts on the state micro-level.

As with international revisionism in the internal variant, requests for alteration may affect both the structural and the order level. As far as the level of requests for alteration is concerned, real facts or a unrernehmensplanung range of actions are involved.

The American sociologist Marion J. Levy on this issue: As far as the changing desires of a counter-elite concern the level of structures, a complete and permanent exchange of personnel in the top positions within the apparatus of domination can be sought without however diminishing the ruling power of the unternehmensplwnung government in specific areas of the state association in question.

Now, there are many cases where revisionist objectives in relation to the internal power structure could also indirectly cause an impact on the geography of rule, as State rule remains untfrnehmensplanung bound. This implies territorial conflict.

Unternehmensplanung : Harald Ehrmann :

The underlying reason thereof lies in a state system, the members of which comprise in the main not a single nation, but contain a relatively strong socio-cultural fragmentation [11] and spread different races among several territories. Experts estimate that more than such socio-cultural fabrics are currently in existence, which, by their degree of integration, could establish a nation state.

Specifically, ethnic minorities of political relevance inhabit countries [12]. In the period from to more than ethno-political groups were engaged in conflict, often resorting to violence; fragmented social structures, however, are not a pre-requisite condition for attaining active and passive support from the mass public, but more of a surface phenomenon exploited by other counter-elites [13].

The category ‘separatism’ embraces such anti-colonial movements who had their independence wrung from colonial rulers throughout Africa and Asia, as well as more recent examples such as the Basque ETA in Spain, Kurdish insurgents in the Iraq as well as unternehmenwplanung movements unternehmensplanunh the Chinese province of Xinjiang.

A timely implementation of their separatist aspirations could be achieved against elitist power organisations in East Timor Indonesia and in southern Sudan.

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Other counter-elitist power organisations of irredentist orientation are still active, too: Irredentist movements will find an optimal habitat wherever the settlement area of an ethnic group transgresses the ehrmnan of the own nation state and is affected beyond the border by discrimination or even repression.

Thus we approach the order level: The order of rule can be monistic or pluralistic. Special attention in this context should be attached towards the process of the distribution of positions within the apparatus of domination, i. The participation in this process of power can be awarded to all respectable members of the citizenry or be limited to a privileged group of individuals. The process of determination of intent – the modus of how socially binding decisions are being agreed upon – can be monopolised or designed for competition.

Finally, it is to behold whether the social order is a partial or total one. Wherever the generally binding decisions grant as much room as to form and determine in the individual functional subsystems of the social system, a relatively large span of order, structure and processes through intrinsic interactions, a partial social order arises.

If however the control width and depth prevents an independent formation of an order, structure unternehjensplanung the processes in all other functional subsystems, a total social order emerges. Basically every important position in the apparatus of domination has to be staffed with own supporters and the ruling political elite permanently shattered, in order to initiate and implement lasting changes on the order level.

In this context, Dr. Bard O’Neill identifies four types of insurgents, which exceed the ambition of the counter-elite for the mere seizure of power and aim at modifying further functional subsystems of the social system.

Today no significant influencing anarchist movement does exit. Present examples are the Shining Path in Peru and the front for the liberation of Nepal. There are some examples in unternehmensplaung past and present: Since the end of the cold war, more and more counter-elitist power organisations with an Islamic revisionist agenda entered the world stage and the prospects for a successful implementation of their agenda are rather more likely to improve than to deteriorate, because the amount of ruined or failed states will remain high in the future in Islamic-dominated regions of the world.

As to the form of organisation of non-governmental activist groups in general and power organisations in particular, specifically unternehmemsplanung power organisations, relevant scientific volumes are being continually published. Especially in the scientific debate relating to counter-elitist power organisations in the context of “New Terrorism” elementary findings of organisational science are scarcely or not at all heeded; instead, the topic is especially treated under the heading of networked terrorism.

It is however paramount within the scientific treatment of the topic in question – counter-elitist organisation of power – to revert to the terminology of business-economy organisational theory which owns already a certain dignity and, above all, a signal effect.

The business-economy organisational theory suggests, in the treatment of organisational phenomena, a twofold division, the conditional and relative structures structural organisationand the process structure organisational proceedings.

The task of a process organisation, in consideration of the settings posed by a target system, is the splitting of the main tasks in as so many fractional tasks, so that the subsequent combination of these subtasks will afford an optimised organisational structure and system of order. The mentioned status and relationship structures are not to be regarded as static, but, as the process structure itself, are subjected to permanent change. This change results on the one hand from alterations in the overall task or the partial tasks – by internal or external influences – and on the other from the attempt to optimise the organisational structure.

Referring to counter-elitist power organisations it may be stated that current data material [17] is sufficiently available and augmented to develop in a structurally functional perspective a basic model of such an organisation in modern terms.

Specifically, the following segments [18] will be discerned:. Counter-elites set the political or ideological stance and all intra-organisational decisions in relation to maintenance, escalation and de-escalation of a conflict.

Moving still on the non-violent level of conflict, but an organised use of force for the realisation of their respective agenda is ideologically legitimised. Basically, the creation of violence-prone units is taken into account within the framework of organisational planning within each counter-elite. To which extent forceful means are deployed depends on the chosen strategy in the context of the conflict.

Within this segment one may unternehmenpslanung between a sort of ‘leader figure’ and unternehmensplanug so-called ideological core group. An impersonation of such a ‘leader figure’ is heading this segment.

The ideological core group are those unternehmensplanug promulgate binding decisions at the strategic level in co-operation with the representative. Al Banna occupies a special position on this issue, as his personality was so over-ruling that he forced all the mandatory strategic decisions for the Muslim Brotherhood single-handed during his tenure.

As proponents of the ideological core group Ayman al-Zawahiri or Abd al-Aziz ar-Rantisi are conspicuous. So, they are responsible for ehrmznn the material-personnel-organisational basics and involved both indirectly as well eurmann directly in acts of terrorism or guerrilla operations. This segment is the Center of Gravity, because specific contacts with decision makers as well as lower batches are maintained.


Paramilitaries are charged with violent engagements in the form of acts of terrorism or guerrilla operations, as well as conventional warfare.

Radicals are ideologically committed and their commitment is so far progressed that they are prepared to participate pro-actively in illegal actions – from preparing to committing acts of violence. This constitutes the domain of ideological ehrmsnn organisations, which are not yet involved in the perpetration of acts of violence.

Definite examples would be found in leftist associations, Koranic schools, or agitating charitable organisations. In the West the latter are not prosecuted, since they are involved only in political agitation or propaganda. Such bans as exist in Western democracies are directed merely against national-socialist or leftist organisations. Against Islamic revisionism, no legal prohibition is yet known, alas. Activists sympathize out of diverse political, ideological, or unternehmensplnaung motivations with the counter-elite, any material-personnel-organisational support is however lacking.

That segment is only rudimentary structured – politically – and their attitude towards organised violence cannot be verified because of lacking data. Historical examples show however, that following the acquisition of political power, the levers of power are seized and a mobilisation will ensue among activists. Evidently, each Government government faces the dilemma that the competing counter-elitist power organisation is far larger, more comprehensive and diffuse as the actual violence aggregate that is fought by police or military forces within the framework of internal security.

Because the gross of the counter-elitist power organisation circles around the non-violent level, the use of force against them, at least in western democratic states, is unthinkable and would be diametrically opposed to human and civil rights valid in these states. Up to now no coherent concepts exist as to confronting these groups below the level of violence. Thus on to the process-oriented structures.

The process-oriented structure describes the content, spatial and temporal sequence of activities designed to meet systematic target requirement issues. It regulates the flow of intra-organisational activities, ehrnann into account the requirements for untednehmensplanung intended result and the efficiency of personnel and resources. At this level the intra-and extra-scientific discourses on unternebmensplanung terrorism” or “networked terrorism” are gathered [20].

Such discourse would ehrmannn further advanced nowadays, ehrmsnn more attention had been directed towards economic planning theory in general and to the schemed target system in particular and if it had bridged the gulf unternehmsnsplanung the discipline of “Business Planning” [21].

This shall be attempted in this section! To redeem these projects, it is useful to turn to the schemed target system in order to model a preliminary rough figure of the process organisation of a ehhrmann power structure.


Recommendation: If you are inexperienced with updating D-Link device drivers manually, we highly recommend downloading the D-Link DSLB Driver. DSLR – Read more about router, wireless, internet, admin, modem and connect. DSLB(EU) – D-Link | Technical Support | Downloads. Can’t connect to WiFi from D-Link DSLB router Oh, and I tried of course lots of different options while manually editing the.
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I bought WiFi dongle to my RPi and configured it. Brand is not so important, as I had access point from my Android phone and the internet worked on the RPi.

All I get is error “authentication request to the driver failed”. Nothing, RPi just won’t connect. What’s wrong with my D-Link router?

DSLB Wireless G ADSL2+ Modem Router | D-Link UK

I have Mac and Windows machines and Android phones connected to it with no problem at all. By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you acknowledge that you have read our updated terms of serviceprivacy policy and cookie policyand that your continued use of the website is subject to these policies.

Home Questions Tags Users Unanswered. Thus, it isn’t an issue with his router as you suggested you should check D-Link support areabut an issue with the Raspberry Pi, rendering this issue on-topic.

Manual Do Sexo Manual

From the on-topic help page: For the most part this includes: So this is definitely issue with the Raspberry Pi.

My WiFi dongle is: I am still searching for a solution.

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In , the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) was introduced into clinical psychiatry because the existing depression rating scales. Estudio de validación de la escala de depresión de Montgomery y Åsberg of the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) in. Se realizó un análisis factorial de la escala; se determinó la consistencia .. A three-factor model of the MADRS in Major Depressive Disorder.
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This paper aims to investigate the psychometric proprieties reliability and validity of escaal scales in a Brazilian sample, and to compare responses in bipolar and unipolar patients. Participants were recruited and treated by clinicians madrx the Structured Interview for DSM-IV criteria, and had previously been interviewed by a trained, blind tester. Both scales indicated good reliability properties; however, the MADRS reliability statistics were higher than those of the HAM-D for detecting initial symptoms of unipolar depression.

Correlation between the tests was moderate. Despite demonstrating adequate validity, neither test achieved the levels of sensitivity and specificity required for identification of a cutoff score to differentiate bipolar I and unipolar patients. Both scales demonstrate adequate reliability and validity for assessing depressive symptoms in the Brazilian sample, and are good options to complement psychiatric diagnosis, but are not appropriate for distinguishing between the two affective disorder types.

The general term depression can be applied to a wide range of states, and is defined by symptoms that can be present in a number of different clinical or psychiatric conditions, associated with the use of psychoactive drugs, or even manifest under normal conditions such as grief or sadness [ 1 ]. By contrast, patients with major depressive disorder present with a group of consistent symptoms that occur throughout most of the day, almost every day, for at least 2 weeks [ 2 ].

As is the case for certain other escsla disorders, specific biological markers are absent for mood disorders, which means that diagnosis tends to be based on the presence of a syndrome, i. Furthermore, some symptoms can be confounded with physical disorders, such as sleep disturbances and changes in weight or libido; these complicating factors facilitate underdiagnosis and confusion with bipolar disorder [ 3 – 7 ]. Consequently, the use of clinical rating scales is required to improve diagnosis quality, to reduce bias caused by physical symptoms, to assess prognosis during treatment, and to evaluate outcomes [ 89 ].

Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale – Wikipedia

A large number of scales for evaluating depressive conditions are available, but the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale HAM-D [ 8 ] and the Montgomery—Asberg Depression Rating Scale MADRS [ 10 ] are the most common rating scales in use, and are commonly applied to establish clinical criteria for distinguishing levels of severity and for measuring evolution of and recovery from a depressive episode [ 1 ].

Some studies reveal correlation coefficients between 0. For this reason, we will describe the instruments in sequence. The HAM-D was developed for administration with patients previously diagnosed with affective mmadrs, as a measure to quantify the results obtained during the clinical interview, but it has largely been used to assess the efficacy of antidepressive treatment [ 814 ].

The HAM-D is a hetero-rated scale: In order to ensure fidelity, a standardized interview guide was created as part of the training [ 1115 ]. Since first published by Hamilton [ 8 ], the scale has been largely applied, and many studies of it have been performed.

Results indicated good internal, interrater, and retest reliability estimates for the overall scale, but weak interrater and retest coefficients at the item level. As expected, evidence for good convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity was also found. Other studies have found coefficients ranging from 0.

Interrater reliability of the scale proved consistent, exceeding 0. The first study with the HAM-D was conducted in the s. Carvalho [ 18 ] designed a translation study, using the HAM-D with 63 bilingual eescala students; and Fleck et al.

The authors found differences in the distribution of the factor solution, such that the Brazilian solution indicated four factors, one more than in the French version, as well as ecala in the way anxiety items were distributed. Reliability analyses have confirmed the ability to discriminate changes during treatment; interrater reliability coefficients have ranged from 0.

Results indicated a reliability of 0. Both scales have ample psychometric evidence that indicates they are valid measures of symptom outcome in major depression. Validity studies are primary conditions to a test, considering that ensures the degree to which an empirical evidence is supported madts 2223 ]. Validity is often treated as a unitary concept, but the process of validation should be an ongoing process of nadrs various kinds of evidence [ 23 ].

Where translation of an instrument is concerned, the first form of evidence relates to content. A literal translation does not ensure that the test measures the same constructs as the original instrument did.

Results obtained by Fleck et al. Variations in depression scores with the HAM-D have been reported in other studies, indicating the importance of considering cultural differences when validating scales [ 2425 ]. Other important and common evidence is related to other variables, that address the degree that measure are consistent with the construct, as in the study by Dractu et al.

As was mentioned earlier, no reliability study with a Brazilian sample was found.

Rating scales in depression: limitations and pitfalls

Reliability is an important component of verifying whether a test is able to measure the proposed construct; i. Secondarily, it aims to compare responses of bipolar I and unipolar patients. The sample comprised 91 adult patients experiencing a major depressive episode: Test-retest methodology was employed using a two-day interval between interviews.

The degree of concordance for the diagnosis Kappa was 0. Carvalho [ 18 ] translated the questionnaire version for use in Brazil by administering the back-translated version to 63 bilingual university graduates. The item version was employed in the present study. In this version, each item is scored from 0 to 2 or from 0 to 4; total scores can range from 0 to The scale predominantly assesses cognitive and vegetative symptoms, with relatively few items related to social, motor, anxiety, and mood factors.

Results are categorized as mild, moderate, or severe depression. Reliability of the instrument is based on non brazilian studies, and lies in the 0. The MADRS [ 10 ] is a item semi-structured scale specifically designed to indicate the severity of the depressive condition.

The validation study for use in Brazil was carried out by Dractu et al. The MADRS assesses mood symptoms exhibited over the preceding 2 weeks, scoring items from 0 to 6, to give a maximum total score of 60 points. The items assess somatic, cognitive, vegetative and anxious symptoms.

The inter-item reliability of the instrument in an international study was 0. They were included in the study only after they had read, understood, and signed the Informed Consent Form. Participants were allocated randomly to one of two blocks via a sequence generated by a biostatistician, and were assessed individually by a blind tester trained to administer the scales.

The scales took an average of 1 hour to administer. The reliability of the HAM-D was determined on the following basis: Validity was assessed as follows: According to the reliability parameters adopted, scores over 0. Therefore, all scores qualified as good or excellent [ 26 ]. Results obtained with the ROC curve indicated that the area under the curve for all the variables ranged between 0. In addition, the curve indicated no definable cutoff score for discriminating symptoms of bipolar I patients from those of unipolar patients.

Group differences in responses to items at time of entry for treatment V0 were assessed using the Mann—Whitney U test.

Of the 17 items in the HAM-D, four Insomnia lateSomatic symptoms—general, Hypochondriasis, and Insight revealed significant group differences in mean scores [ 3334 ]. According to mean scores, depressive patients reported more sleep-related difficulties and somatic symptoms and some inappropriate worry about their health in their initial interview than did bipolar I patients, who reported more knowledge about their depressive state state at time of entry.

Unipolar subjects had higher overall scores than did bipolar I patients, although this difference was not statistically significant. Results of the Mann—Whitney U test showed statistically significant group differences on seven of the 10 items as well as on the total score of the MADRS, with the unipolar group consistently scoring higher.

Item-specific comparisons showed that unipolar patients had greater sadness and apparent sadness, tension, psychomotor inhibition, reduced appetite, concentration difficulties, and inability to feel and total score.

To conclude, correlation analyses between the scales were performed, in order to determine the degree of similarity of HAM-D and MADRS at the three administration time points. The results showed good levels of reliability and validity for both scales, indicating that they were able to measure gravity of depressive symptoms.

Reliability of the HAM-D ranged from good to excellent at the three administration time points, although few items served to distinguish the more specific symptoms of unipolar depressed subjects. Concerning the MADRS, reliability was also as expected, showing scores in agreement with those found in other studies [ 91021 ].

As already discussed, most items were able to differentiate unipolar from bipolar I subjects. Despite its extensive use, MADRS lacks published results in Brazil, precluding comparisons against the findings of the present study. In addition, besides differences among items, it is important to note that the ROC curve failed to indicate a cutoff point for differentiating unipolar from bipolar I depression. It is known that bipolar I patients are often initially diagnosed as unipolar because they tend to seek medical assistance during the depressive phase [ 4 ].

For this reason, scales that are sensitive enough to discriminate the two conditions may be promising for assisting diagnosis by health professionals, and should be considered in further studies. A secondary aim was to compare responses between the unipolar and bipolar I group.

Regarding HAM-D score differences, the scale has determined that unipolar depressive patients have a greater tendency to weep and to exhibit more nonverbal expressions of sadness and hopelessness, according to other studies [ 36 ].

Other results relevant to MDD diagnosis are related to items 7 work activities and 8 psychomotor retardation. Unipolar patients scored higher on these items, although the difference was statistically nonsignificant.

It eecala also pertinent to highlight some of the observed qualitative differences in depressive and bipolar I symptomology, even those mwdrs were not statistically significant. This indicates that both patients frequently entertain ideas of guilt or rumination, and that sometimes these thoughts include the notion that madsr is not worth living and ideas about the possibility of death, but also excessive fear and concerns with minor matters.

It is important to consider that the differences in this kind of ideation were not significant between groups, which is unexpected, considering that greater suicidal ideation is expected for depressed patients [ 3716 ]. Additionally, bipolar I patients had a higher but also nonsignificant mean score on psychomotor agitation, which is a rating based on observation and indicates motor restlessness. This could be an important nonverbal sign to consider during interviews, and is supported by results from other studies [ 4 – 6 ].

Finally, regarding the statistical difference on item 17 Insightit is known that people with bipolar disorder are more likely to seek help when they are depressed than when they are experiencing mania or hypomania [ 5 ], so this is an expected result.

Considering these results, the MADRS items appear to be more appropriate for assessing unipolar depression, in view that discriminated more significant differences between bipolar and unipolar patients. Finally, a high correlation was found between the two instruments, and was similar to those reported by Dractu, Kadrs and Calil [ 17 ].

Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale

Importantly, the sample used by those authors included only unipolar subjects. The scales proved consistent for assessing depressive symptoms, but limitations in their ability to discriminate unipolar and bipolar I patients were found. Further investigations should replicate the present study with larger samples and incorporate scales that may be more sensitive for detecting the different spectrums in order to reduce current limitations.

Moreover, is important to highlight that escwla MADRS and HAM-D have a number of particularities that should be considered by the clinician, including the number of constituent items and the distribution of symptoms. For instance, the HAM-D contains somatic items that are not included in the MADRS, which for its part, represents a good option in cases where assessment of somatic symptoms of depression is not required, and where comparisons of observed and reported symptoms is desired.

AMC designed the study, performed the statistical analyses and interpretation, and contributed to writing and reviewing the manuscript. RAM designed the study and managed the statistical analyses. FF interpreted the data and drafted the manuscript and contributed to reviewing it. All authors have read and approved the mades manuscript.

Adriana Munhoz Carneiro, Email: Ricardo Alberto Moreno, Email:


Find helpful customer reviews and review ratings for M-Audio SBX10 Watt Professional Active Subwoofer at Read honest and unbiased. Buy M-Audio SBX10 Watt Professional Active Subwoofer: Computer Recording – ✓ FREE DELIVERY possible on eligible purchases. The SBX10 subwoofer from M-Audio offers a large amount of power in a compact package. The 10″ front-firing driver is powered by a W Class A/B amplifier.
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A perfect companion to the BX or CX series speakers, the SBX10 is ideal for home or project studios where space is at a premium, but an excellent bass response is needed. The sturdy MDF cabinet has a bass-reflex port for excellent response with minimal turbulence.

The subwoofer has a continuously variable crossover that can be set from 50 to Hz, allowing you to use the subwoofer with virtually any full-range speaker. A rear-panel volume control lets you precisely adjust the subwoofer’s loudness. It also offers a voltage selector switch for worldwide use.

No Longer Zbx10 Update Location close.

Enter new zip code to refresh estimated delivery time. Update Unrecognized Zip Sbxx10. I use the sub with my BX5a M-Audio speakers. I pushed the sub to top and no issues. That was great for well produced album. Now for recording music you need to do your homework thanks sbs10 comments from the other reviews it made a differance for me,I have never used a sub for recording it only took me one day to get it right, again thanks for reviews and internet.

So far this sub-woofer has been more than ample. Svx10 have it paired with a set of M-audio Snx10 in my modest home studio and I currently have the volume on the sub barely above minimum and it is more than enough to round out the sound in a crisp clear way.

I know that in the future when I expand my studio set up, this sub will be coming with me. It really does have extreme volume capacity and more power to use. I’m really holding it back from it’s full potential. I highly recommend this sub along with most other M-audio reference monitors for their clean and clear reproduction of sound at a modest price. The monitors themselves have plenty of bass, but I was never satisfied with what they had aaudio offer.

Not only did I want to hear aueio bass I wanted to feel it too. So I decided to buy a subwoofer. I did a lot of research for subwoofers in this price range audko I decided that this was the best choice. The subwoofer is aaudio in its box by Styrofoam placed on the top and bottom of the unit. The subwoofer is black all around, including the front face plate and the grill.

Pictures online are somewhat deceiving in that it makes the unit look gray with a black faceplate. It was really easy to setup. Just plug in the cables from your source into the input on the sub, plug in the outputs on the sub to your monitors, set the volume, and set the crossover. When I first turned on the subwoofer and played a song, I had the volume set at 0db. I chose a bass heavy song because I wanted to see what the subwoofer could do.

As soon as the song started playing I was immediately surprised at how powerful this aydio was. The house was literally shaking. Someone on the complete opposite side of the house noticed and had to see what was going on. This unit is plenty powerful. There are four spiked feet that simply screw into the bottom of the subwoofer. It may be possible to make custom feet because the spikes screw in using a normal threaded screw.

Activating the switch essentially cuts the subwoofer out of the audio chain and sends the full signal to the monitors. I found this to be particularly useful when listening at night and not wanting to bother others in the house. What I like about the crossover is that it is variable and you can set it to a particular frequency.

So this subwoofer zbx10 be used in a variety of configurations, with different setups. What I didn’t like about the variable crossover is that it is hard to fine tune sbx100 to a specific frequency. If you want to set it to anything besides those frequencies it is basically a guess svx10 you. I’m sure you will get it in the frequency range you want but it might be difficult to tell if you set it at the correct frequency.

The subwoofer came shipped to me without the grill attached and it looks rather cool that way. I decided to place the grill on just in case. The grill auido to the front face plate by simply pressing it into place, no screws or any other anchors to secure it into place sbx100 of like a lid to a paint bucket.

This isn’t a bad system; the grill will stay put and is very secure.

M-Audio SBX10 Professional Active Subwoofer Review

You won’t have to worry about it falling off. The only gripe I have with it is that sometimes I can’t make it sit entirely flush against the face of the subwoofer. Overall it sits pretty flush and only some parts of the grill protrude further out than others but you can’t really tell unless you are looking for it.

So how does it sound? The subwoofer basically gave my monitors the bottom end I was longing for. The bass is clean and svx10, not muddy. I’ve had sbc10 of experience with cheaper subwoofers and those pale in comparison to what the SBX10 has to offer. It has made my listening experiences even more enjoyable than when I upgraded to studio monitors alone.

It really gives your music that kick it’s missing. Overall I’m impressed with this subwoofer and I would recommend it to anyone who is on the fence about buying one. Rated 4 out of 5 by Anonymous from N excellent! Never had audoo subwoofer before, and decided to get one to improve my home studio. Really had no idea what I was getting myself into. I produce electronic music and without a good subwoofer I was not getting the right bass sound that I wanted.

Anyway, this thing has a tremendous amount of power. The first track I played made my dog jump out of his skin from a dead sleep. I have the output down to about dbs and it’s absolutely sufficient.

M-Audio Sbx10 Powered Studio Subwoofer | eBay

The bypass pedal is awesome too, and I’m sure my neighbors are as happy as I am about it. If you already have M-Audio monitors, this is the way to go. This sub is built very solid. I can’t imagine anyone could expect anything better than sbx01 for the money. Way more power than what I need.

Sounds great and is very adjustable for many situations. I like having the crossover and the foot sbx1 to bypass the sub is a functional bonus. Better snx10 anyone else and with free shipping you can’t go wrong. If your looking for a great sub in this price range I think you’ll be very pleased with your purchase. Rated 5 out of 5 by nightmedia from Literally rocks the house First off, I live in an apartment, and it is well built. You will need to walk the sub until you find the corner of the house where it does not sound boomy.

M-Audio SBX10 Professional Active Subwoofer Review – The Wire Realm

Mm frequency threshold is adjustable, and for me I keep it on the lowest setting, since I run this with a pair of Event 8 active speakers that already have very good bass. The default volume is on the high side, I guess under the assumption that you would work with active speakers that are turned sbx1 all the way, in any case there is plenty of adjustment headroom.

There is no vibration or resonance, it is really smooth yet powerful. The only thing that starts resonating after a bit are the building walls, and your ribcage. Rated 5 out of 5 by Denver Dude from Too good to be true Yup, this subwoofer is too good to be j at this price.

With my two matching BX5a’s the sound is wonderful. The crossover works exactly sbx1 stated. Its great for music especially when its not compressed like on a store bought CD.

For MP3 and other compressed formats you’ll hear all the flaws, pops and hiss in the soundtrack. The subwoofer makes my M-Audio BX5a’s really come alive, midtone and treble are spot on. But for games it can’t be matched. The bombs, explosions, and gun play are fantastic.

M-Audio Sbx10 Powered Studio Subwoofer

Shx10 even sound life like. I’m saving for 3 more BX5a’s to have 5: The subwoofer has a clean sound, not distored, even when playing really loud. Most of the time I need to turn it down or else the entire house shakes, no lie.

Don’t get this if you live in an apartment or else you’ll get evicted for sure. Too bad, it would be like driving a Ferrari at 55 mph on a race track. This is not compact or small and its heavy, but, these are only a few of the good qualities.

It looks, feels, and sounds expensive. My only regret is not getting this sooner. Be the first to review this item. See any errors on this page?


Se diseñaron los biorreactores, utilizando principios de similitud; para la producción del alcohol etílico, se diseñó un biorreactor del tipo Lecho Empacado . Inmovilización de levaduras en residuos lignocelulósicos para la producción de etanol en biorreactor de lecho empacado. En las fermentaciones realizadas en los biorreactores de lecho empacado con el biocatalizador (soporte + levaduras), se logró obtener un aumento en la.
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Received for review November 23 th, accepted May 16 th, final version May, 31 th Continuous processes with immobilized cells are a good alternative for improving the efficiency and the performance of alcoholic fermentations. The potential use of raw materials obtained from agro-industrial waste as supports for cell immobilization was recently evaluated. In this work, we evaluated the continuous production of ethanol in packed-bed reactors with yeast cells immobilized on wood shaving, cane bagasse, corn leave, and corn cob lignocellulosic waste.

We used glucose as a carbon source to establish the reference conditions and we made the fermentations with commercial sucrose.

We also evaluated the glucose syrup obtained from cassava flour as alternative substrate. The experiments were performed on a laboratory level in column reactors of mL. The cane bagasse was the material on which the highest amount of cells was immobilized. A value of 0. For the fermentation performed with glucose, the productivity reached was A similar value, In the fermentations performed with glucose syrup, a higher amount of ethanol was obtained in the process that used corn cob as the carrier.

The results obtained have allowed us to establish the potential this lignocellulosic waste has as empacaddo for cell immobilization for the continuous production of ethanol, and the possibility of using glucose syrup as an alternative substrate. Las experimentaciones fueron realizadas a nivel de laboratorio en reactores de columna de mL.

One of the more relevant biofuels for the substitution of fossil fuels is ethanol [1], which is mainly produced by alcoholic fermentation in batch processes. However, the performance and costs of production of this technology are still high empcado to fossil fuels [2]. Many possibilities of optimization have been suggested for obtaining this biofuel, and one of them has to do with emacado usage of more efficient production eempacado. The continuous processes are an alternative for improving the efficiency and performance of alcoholic biorfeactor and for reducing the costs of production.

The continuous processes that use immobilized cells show several advantages with respect to continuous processes with free cells [3,18,20]. The immobilization matrixes more frequently e,pacado have been polymeric gels like alginate, where the cells are immobilized for entrapment into the gel.

However, this method of immobilization is not too viable on an industrial scale, due to the high cost of raw material and the relative complexity of preparation of the biocatalysts carrier-cell with respect to the operative lifetime of the process [4,21,14]. We also evaluated the glucose syrup obtained from cassava flour as an alternative substrate. The fermenting medium used for the experiments was the following: The pH was set to biorreactof.

Carriers for immobilization The lignocellulosic waste used were wood shaving, cane bagasse, corn leave, and corn cob, which were obtained from some agro industries in the region. We obtained pieces of material of sizes between 3.

Immobilization process The cellular immobilization was carried out in a column reactor of mL, provided with a temperature control jacket. A Cole Parmer peristaltic pump model was used, operating at a flow of 0.

The process of immobilization was carried out for 12 h. Batch fermentation Once the immobilization process in the column bioreactor was finished, we began the batch fermentation by pumping the medium fermentation until the reactor filled up. The fermentation time of 12 h. We took the sample at the end of the fermentation.

Continuous fermentation For continuous fermentation, a feeding flow of 1. The established time of residence t was 3 h, and the reactor was operated this way for 6 times of residence 18 h.

Before starting the continuous process, we carried out the stages of cell immobilization and batch fermentation previously described. Stable system operation was achieved after the fourth residence time, when the sugar concentration in the samples was similar.

The samples were taken at the output of the reactor, once the system was in a stable state. Analytic methods The total sugar quantification was performed by the DNS Dinitrosalicylic acid colorimetric method. The absorbance reading was done with a spectrophotometer Spectronic Genesis 2, modelserial no. LR at nm [8]. The biorrfactor of biomass was determined by optic density at nm using a curve of dry weight. The concentration of alcohol was determined by HPLC.

Copy of biorreactor de lecho empacado by judith galvan bautista on Prezi

We used a CH column with an internal diameter of 7. The flow of the mobile phase was 0. The detection by UV absorbance was set to nm. The amount ldcho immobilized biomass was established by the modified dry-weight technique [9]. In order to confirm immobilization and determine the differences between the carriers, we obtained images by scanning electronic microscopy SEM.

Figure 1 shows the results obtained in the cell immobilization performed on the 4 carriers evaluated. It is observed that the cane bagasse was the material in which the highest amount of cells was immobilized, 0. The process of immobilization was carried out with a flow of 0. For the wood shaving and corn cob, we obtained an amount of immobilized biomass of 0.

In the case of the corn cob, the immobilization was obtained under the same conditions; that is, a flow of 0. For the wood shaving, the amount of immobilized biomass was obtained lscho a flow of 3.

The corn leave carrier was the material in which the lowest amount of cells was immobilized. The value obtained was 0. The fermentations with glucose as the carbon source were performed using cane bagasse as the carrier. The reactor was fed with fermentation medium throughout the peristaltic pump. The filter attached to the reactor output was used to retain the cells that were not immobilized within the process.

The kinectics of the immobilized cells was determined during 12 h in a batch fermentation with an initial amount of cells of 0. In this system, the substrate consumption and generation of the product was given only by the immobilized cells thanks to the filtering equipment installed at the reactor output.

The final concentration of ethanol obtained was We obtained a consumption of The parameters obtained in the batch process are shown in Table 1. For the continuous process, we used a time of residence of oecho h and a flow of 1.

Un biorreactor Novela de alta densidad de cultivo de diversas comunidades microbianas

The samples were taken during 6 t equivalent to 18 h. Prior biordeactor the start of the continuous process, we performed a batch stage of 12 h.

We noticed that the system stabilizes when it passes the fourth time of residence 4 t. The consumption of glucose was high when it passed the first time of residence 1 t. However, upon reaching stable operation, the value was 1. The production of ethanol obtained at the output of the reactor was The productivity reached was Table 2 shows the parameters obtained in the continuous fermentation.

The results obtained in the borreactor fermentations are significant if compared to the results obtained by other researchers [12]. Additionally, we reached a better productivity than Plessas S. We made continuous fermentation using the biocatalysts obtained with the four materials.

Yeast immobilization in lignocellulosic wastes for ethanol production in packed bed bioreactor

As a carbon source, we evaluated sucrose and glucose syrup obtained from cassava flour. Figures 4 biorreavtor 5 show the results obtained for the continuous fermentation carried out with sucrose.

As observed in Fig. The highest concentration of ethanol was reached in the fermentation that used the cane bagasse as a carrier. Although the sugars are not completely consumed at the end of the process, the production of ethanol was sustained in a very similar value than the one obtained with glucose, reaching a productivity of Table 3 shows the values of productivity reached with the other materials.

The productivities reached in fermentations with boirreactor immobilized on corn leaves, corn cob, and wood shaving are similar to each other. The consumption of sucrose in the fermentations is different to the consumption of glucose Fig.

The maximum theoretical yield of sucrose to ethanol is 0. Differences in yield may result from variations in the microenvironmental conditions generated within the bioreactor, probably caused by the particular characteristics of each carrier [19].

The results of the fermentations carried out with glucose syrup obtained from cassava flour are shown in Figs. The fermentation which produced the highest amount of ethanol was the one using corn cobs as a carrier.

These results are very relevant if compared with the values obtained in the traditional batch fermentations as well as the results obtained by other researches, who used different materials in the immobilization of cells for the production of ethanol [11—20]. At the output of the reactor we obtained concentrations from These results are similar to the values obtained with the ldcho.

Table 4 shows the parameters obtained in the continuous fermentation with glucose syrup as a carbon source. However, these values are higher than the ones obtained in the fermentation with glucose. This is possibly due to the fact that glucose syrup contains other fermentable sugars such as maltose.

This indicates the potential that glucose syrup has as an alternative substrate for ethanol production. Figure 8 shows the cells immobilized on each of the four evaluated carriers. Initially, the cells biorreacto more affinity for folds and rough surfaces. However, as the contact of the cells with the carrier increases, and the fermentation time passes, we expected the immobilization to occur on the whole surface of the carrier.

We could appreciate some differences between the surfaces of the four carriers. The features of the surfaces may change the process of cells immobilization as well as the yield in the production of ethanol.